Tator CH, Edmonds VE. Acute spinal cord injury: analysis of epidemiologic factors. Can J Surg. 1979;22:575–8.
Celik M, Gokmen N, Erbayraktar S, Akhisaroglu M, Konakc S, Ulukus C, Genc S, Genc K, Sagiroglu E, Cerami A, Brines M. Erythropoietin prevents motor neuron apoptosis and neurologic disability in experimental spinal cord ischemic injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2258–63.
Sekhon LH, Fehlings MG. Epidemiology, demographics, and pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:S2–12.
McVicar JP, Luce JM. Management of spinal cord injury in the critical care setting. Crit Care Clin. 1986;2:747–58.
Tator CH, Fehlings MG. Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms. J Neurosurg. 1991;75:15–26.
Aki T, Toya S. Experimental study on changes of the spinal-evoked potential and circulatory dynamics following spinal cord compression and decompression. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1984;9:800–9.
Basaran R, Kaner T. C5 nerve root palsy following decompression of cervical spine with anterior versus posterior types of procedures in patients with cervical myelopathy. Eur Spine J. 2016;25:2050–9.
Madhavan K, Chieng LO, Foong H, Wang MY. Surgical outcomes of elderly patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a meta-analysis of studies reporting on 2868 patients. Neurosurg Focus. 2016;40:E13.
Hasegawa K, Homma T, Chiba Y. Upper extremity palsy following cervical decompression surgery results from a transient spinal cord lesion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:E197–202.
Vaughan CJ, Delanty N. Neuroprotective properties of statins in cerebral ischemia and stroke. Stroke. 1999;30:1969–73.
Jones SP, Trocha SD, Lefer DJ. Pretreatment with simvastatin attenuates myocardial dysfunction after ischemia and chronic reperfusion. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:2059–64.
Naidu BV, Woolley SM, Farivar AS, Thomas R, Fraga C, Mulligan MS. Simvastatin ameliorates injury in an experimental model of lung ischemia-reperfusion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:482–9.
Sironi L, Cimino M, Guerrini U, Calvio AM, Lodetti B, Asdente M, Balduini W, Paoletti R, Tremoli E. Treatment with statins after induction of focal ischemia in rats reduces the extent of brain damage. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:322–7.
Devarajan P. Update on mechanisms of ischemic acute kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:1503–20.
Sutherland BA, Minnerup J, Balami JS, Arba F, Buchan AM, Kleinschnitz C. Neuroprotection for ischaemic stroke: translation from the bench to the bedside. Int J Stroke. 2012;7:407–18.
Hayashi T, Rani PJ, Fukatsu A, Matsui-Hirai H, Osawa M, Miyazaki A, Tsunekawa T, Kano-Hayashi H, Iguchi A, Sumi D, Ignarro LJ. A new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pitavastatin remarkably retards the progression of high cholesterol induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis. 2004;176:255–63.
Balduini W, Mazzoni E, Carloni S, De Simoni MG, Perego C, Sironi L, Cimino M. Prophylactic but not delayed administration of simvastatin protects against long-lasting cognitive and morphological consequences of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, reduces interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA induction, and does not affect endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Stroke. 2003;34:2007–12.
Cimino M, Gelosa P, Gianella A, Nobili E, Tremoli E, Sironi L. Statins: multiple mechanisms of action in the ischemic brain. Neuroscientist. 2007;13:208–13.
van der Most PJ, Dolga AM, Nijholt IM, Luiten PG, Eisel UL. Statins: mechanisms of neuroprotection. Prog Neurobiol. 2009;88:64–75.
Hayashi T, Hamakawa K, Nagotani S, Jin G, Li F, Deguchi K, Sehara Y, Zhang H, Nagano I, Shoji M, Abe K. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors reduce ischemic brain injury of Wistar rats through decreasing oxidative stress on neurons. Brain Res. 2005;1037:52–8.
Hong H, Zeng JS, Kreulen DL, Kaufman DI, Chen AF. Atorvastatin protects against cerebral infarction via inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in ischemic stroke. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H2210–5.
Manzanero S, Santro T, Arumugam TV. Neuronal oxidative stress in acute ischemic stroke: sources and contribution to cell injury. Neurochem Int. 2013;62:712–8.
Pannu R, Barbosa E, Singh AK, Singh I. Attenuation of acute inflammatory response by atorvastatin after spinal cord injury in rats. J Neurosci Res. 2005;79:340–50.
Esposito E, Rinaldi B, Mazzon E, Donniacuo M, Impellizzeri D, Paterniti I, Capuano A, Bramanti P, Cuzzocrea S. Anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin in an experimental model of spinal cord trauma: involvement of PPAR-alpha. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:81.
Anderson DK, Means ED, Waters TR, Spears CJ. Spinal cord energy metabolism following compression trauma to the feline spinal cord. J Neurosurg. 1980;53:375–80.
Hwang J, Han JI, Han S. Effect of pretreatment with simvastatin on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27:79–85.
Saito T, Tsuchida M, Umehara S, Kohno T, Yamamoto H, Hayashi J. Reduction of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury with simvastatin in rats. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:565–71.
Lim JH, Lee JC, Lee YH, Choi IY, Oh YK, Kim HS, Park JS, Kim WK. Simvastatin prevents oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced death of cortical neurons by reducing the production and toxicity of 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal. J Neurochem. 2006;97:140–50.
Domoki F, Kis B, Gaspar T, Snipes JA, Parks JS, Bari F, Busija DW. Rosuvastatin induces delayed preconditioning against oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultured cortical neurons. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C97–105.
Jiang XY, Fu SL, Nie BM, Li Y, Lin L, Yin L, Wang YX, Lu PH, Xu XM. Methods for isolating highly-enriched embryonic spinal cord neurons: a comparison between enzymatic and mechanical dissociations. J Neurosci Methods. 2006;158:13–8.
Huang X, Sun J, Zhao T, Wu KW, Watanabe K, Xiao ZC, Zhu LL, Fan M. Loss of NB-3 aggravates cerebral ischemia by impairing neuron survival and neurite growth. Stroke. 2011;42:2910–6.
Brown M, Hart C, Tawadros T, Ramani V, Sangar V, Lau M, Clarke N. The differential effects of statins on the metastatic behaviour of prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:1689–96.
Yamamoto Y, Mochida J, Sakai D, Nakai T, Nishimura K, Kawada H, Hotta T. Upregulation of the viability of nucleus pulposus cells by bone marrow-derived stromal cells: significance of direct cell-to-cell contact in coculture system. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:1508–14.
Deng X, Luan Q, Chen W, Wang Y, Wu M, Zhang H, Jiao Z. Nanosized zinc oxide particles induce neural stem cell apoptosis. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:115101.
Johnson-Anuna LN, Eckert GP, Franke C, Igbavboa U, Muller WE, Wood WG. Simvastatin protects neurons from cytotoxicity by up-regulating Bcl-2 mRNA and protein. J Neurochem. 2007;101:77–86.
Burd JF, Usategui-Gomez M. A colorimetric assay for serum lactate dehydrogenase. Clin Chim Acta. 1973;46:223–7.
Jayalakshmi K, Sairam M, Singh SB, Sharma SK, Ilavazhagan G, Banerjee PK. Neuroprotective effect of N-acetyl cysteine on hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal culture. Brain Res. 2005;1046:97–104.
Amarenco P, Moskowitz MA. The dynamics of statins: from event prevention to neuroprotection. Stroke. 2006;37:294–6.
Liu L, Liu H, Yang F, Chen G, Zhou H, Tang M, Zhang R, Dong Q. Tissue kallikrein protects cortical neurons against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury via the ERK1/2 pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;407:283–7.
Zacco A, Togo J, Spence K, Ellis A, Lloyd D, Furlong S, Piser T. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors protect cortical neurons from excitotoxicity. J Neurosci. 2003;23:11104–11.
Nagotani S, Hayashi T, Sato K, Zhang W, Deguchi K, Nagano I, Shoji M, Abe K. Reduction of cerebral infarction in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats by statins associated with amelioration of oxidative stress. Stroke. 2005;36:670–2.
Lathia JD, Chigurupati S, Thundyil J, Selvaraj PK, Mughal MR, Woodruff TM, Chan SL, Karamyan VT, Mattson MP, Arumugam TV. Pivotal role for beta-1 integrin in neurovascular remodelling after ischemic stroke. Exp Neurol. 2010;221:107–14.
Shabanzadeh AP, Shuaib A, Wang CX. Simvastatin reduced ischemic brain injury and perfusion deficits in an embolic model of stroke. Brain Res. 2005;1042:1–5.
Lefer AM, Scalia R, Lefer DJ. Vascular effects of HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) unrelated to cholesterol lowering: new concepts for cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Res. 2001;49:281–7.
Koh JY, Choi DW. Quantitative determination of glutamate mediated cortical neuronal injury in cell culture by lactate dehydrogenase efflux assay. J Neurosci Methods. 1987;20:83–90.
Kalogeris T, Baines CP, Krenz M, Korthuis RJ. Cell biology of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2012;298:229–317.
Collard CD, Gelman S. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Anesthesiology. 2001;94:1133–8.
Marttila RJ, Roytta M, Lorentz H, Rinne UK. Oxygen toxicity protecting enzymes in the human brain. J Neural Transm. 1988;74:87–95.
Makar TK, Nedergaard M, Preuss A, Gelbard AS, Perumal AS, Cooper AJ. Vitamin E, ascorbate, glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and enzymes of glutathione metabolism in cultures of chick astrocytes and neurons: evidence that astrocytes play an important role in antioxidative processes in the brain. J Neurochem. 1994;62:45–53.
Cafe C, Torri C, Bertorelli L, Tartara F, Tancioni F, Gaetani P, Rodriguez y Baena R, Marzatico F. Oxidative events in neuronal and glial cell-enriched fractions of rat cerebral cortex. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995;19:853–7.
Kontos HA, George E. Brown memorial lecture. Oxygen radicals in cerebral vascular injury. Circ Res. 1985;57:508–16.
Traystman RJ, Kirsch JR, Koehler RC. Oxygen radical mechanisms of brain injury following ischemia and reperfusion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1991;71:1185–95.
Liao JK, Laufs U. Pleiotropic effects of statins. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:89–118.
Schouten O, Bax JJ, Dunkelgrun M, Feringa HH, van Urk H, Poldermans D. Statins for the prevention of perioperative cardiovascular complications in vascular surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44:419–24.
Moulakakis KG, Matoussevitch V, Borgonio A, Gawenda M, Brunkwall J. Evidence that statins protect renal function during endovascular repair of AAAs. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2010;40:608–15.
Guzik B, Sagan A, Ludew D, Mrowiecki W, Chwala M, Bujak-Gizycka B, Filip G, Grudzien G, Kapelak B, Zmudka K, Mrowiecki T, Sadowski J, Korbut R, Guzik TJ. Mechanisms of oxidative stress in human aortic aneurysms--association with clinical risk factors for atherosclerosis and disease severity. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:2389–96.
Karadimas SK, Gatzounis G, Fehlings MG. Pathobiology of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Eur Spine J. 2015;24 Suppl 2:132–8.
Hu S, Dong HL, Li YZ, Luo ZJ, Sun L, Yang QZ, Yang LF, Xiong L. Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on biochemical markers and neurologic outcomes in patients undergoing elective cervical decompression surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2010;22:46–52.
Yaman O, Yaman B, Aydin F, Var A, Temiz C. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in the experimental spinal cord injury model. Spine J. 2014;14:2184–94.
Abramov AY, Scorziello A, Duchen MR. Three distinct mechanisms generate oxygen free radicals in neurons and contribute to cell death during anoxia and reoxygenation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1129–38.
Jung YS, Oh AY, Park HP, Hwang JW, Lim YJ, Jeon YT. Post-ischemic administration of pravastatin reduces neuronal injury by inhibiting Bax protein expression after transient forebrain ischemia in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2015;594:87–92.
Bosel J, Gandor F, Harms C, Synowitz M, Harms U, Djoufack PC, Megow D, Dirnagl U, Hortnagl H, Fink KB, Endres M. Neuroprotective effects of atorvastatin against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cortical neurones. J Neurochem. 2005;92:1386–98.
Loane DJ, Faden AI. Neuroprotection for traumatic brain injury: translational challenges and emerging therapeutic strategies. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010;31:596–604.
Tanaka T, Tatsuno I, Uchida D, Moroo I, Morio H, Nakamura S, Noguchi Y, Yasuda T, Kitagawa M, Saito Y, Hirai A. Geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate, an isoprenoid of mevalonate cascade, is a critical compound for rat primary cultured cortical neurons to protect the cell death induced by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibition. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2852–9.
Marz P, Otten U, Miserez AR. Statins induce differentiation and cell death in neurons and astroglia. Glia. 2007;55:1–12.
Wood WG, Eckert GP, Igbavboa U, Muller WE. Statins and neuroprotection: a prescription to move the field forward. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1199:69–76.
Bu DX, Tarrio M, Grabie N, Zhang Y, Yamazaki H, Stavrakis G, Maganto-Garcia E, Pepper-Cunningham Z, Jarolim P, Aikawa M, Garcia-Cardena G, Lichtman AH. Statin-induced Kruppel-like factor 2 expression in human and mouse T cells reduces inflammatory and pathogenic responses. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1961–70.
Kureishi Y, Luo Z, Shiojima I, Bialik A, Fulton D, Lefer DJ, Sessa WC, Walsh K. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin activates the protein kinase Akt and promotes angiogenesis in normocholesterolemic animals. Nat Med. 2000;6:1004–10.
Ponce J, de la Ossa NP, Hurtado O, Millan M, Arenillas JF, Davalos A, Gasull T. Simvastatin reduces the association of NMDA receptors to lipid rafts: a cholesterol-mediated effect in neuroprotection. Stroke. 2008;39:1269–75.
Qi XF, Zheng L, Lee KJ, Kim DH, Kim CS, Cai DQ, Wu Z, Qin JW, Yu YH, Kim SK. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors induce apoptosis of lymphoma cells by promoting ROS generation and regulating Akt, Erk and p38 signals via suppression of mevalonate pathway. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e518.
Hsieh CH, Rau CS, Hsieh MW, Chen YC, Jeng SF, Lu TH, Chen SS. Simvastatin-induced heme oxygenase-1 increases apoptosis of Neuro 2A cells in response to glucose deprivation. Toxicol Sci. 2008;101:112–21.