- Research article
- Open Access
In vivo animal study and clinical outcomes of autologous atelocollagen-induced chondrogenesis for osteochondral lesion treatment
© Kim et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
- Received: 27 October 2014
- Accepted: 4 May 2015
- Published: 28 May 2015
Collagen acts as a scaffold for healing damaged cartilage. This study evaluated the results of an in vivo animal study and provides short-term clinical results on a mixture of atelocollagen and fibrin glue-enhanced microfracture techniques in patients with osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the talus.
This paper contains animal in vivo data and clinical outcomes on the effectiveness of atelocollagen. An in vivo animal study was conducted with full-thickness cartilage defects created in the femoral condyle of 12 rabbits equally divided into 4 groups evaluated at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Four chondral lesions were created according to one procedure on each rabbit with each lesion treated as follows: (1) microfracture, (2) microfracture and the lesion covered with atelocollagen, (3) microfracture and the lesion covered with mixture of atelocollagen and fibrin glue, and (4) microfracture and the lesion covered with fibrin glue. In the clinical evaluation, 17 patients were treated with a combination of microfracture and atelocollagen injection for symptomatic full-thickness OCL of the talus. They were evaluated by the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Score (AOFAS), Hannover Ankle Score System (HSS), visual analog scale (VAS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and at 12-months follow-up. Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) score of the post-op status was compared with the MOCART score and a modified Anderson’s score of the pre-op status.
In the animal study, subchondral bone and cartilage were generated completely in groups 2 and 3 microscopically. Hyaline-like cartilage was found in the repair tissue. In the clinical evaluation, mean AOFAS improved from 62 to 88, mean HSS improved from 62 to 87, and mean VAS score improved from 64 to 18, respectively (p <0.001). Fifteen patients (89 %) reported good or excellent satisfaction. We defined the improvement of most of the subchondral bone edema and bone cyst as well as a chondral lesion by radiologic evaluation.
Rapid regeneration of cartilage was demonstrated in the in vivo animal study, and patients showed significant clinical improvement. Atelocollagen-enhanced microfracture enabled a reasonable treatment of cartilage defects.
- Cartilage disease
- Subchondral arthroplasty
Traumatic and degenerative cartilage injury occurs frequently in knee and ankle joints; however osteochondral lesions receive more attention due to their correlation with the progression of joint degeneration . Adult cartilage has very low intrinsic activity and low potential for regeneration. Cell migration does not occur due to low vascularity and high stiffness. Consequently, the histological characteristics of cartilage that cannot form cell clumps lead to a lack of essential cells and collagen that is unable to recruit local sources of progenitor cells at the articular surface as well as the synovial lining of the joint cavity . Therefore, healing of chondral and osteochondral defects may not be expected. Microfracture, osteochondral autologous transplantation (OATS), and ACI are the most well-known treatments for these injuries . Especially, microfracture is widely used and induces the repair of localized articular cartilage defects of the talus with encouraging mid-term and long-term follow-up results [4, 5]. However, microfracture has several limitations. First, fibrin clot is not mechanically stable enough to withstand tangential forces  and is also easily washed out by synovial fluid. Second, they are damaged by axial forces, and the regeneration abilities of the chondrocytes may disappear. Last, damaged parts are filled with fibrous cartilage instead of hyaline-like cartilage. Fibrin glue and biomembrane, types of collagen, were developed as a scaffold due to the slight advantage of microfracture and for compensating stability. As described by Gille et al., an implanted exogenous scaffold (e.g., collagen matrix) may improve mechanical stability; in addition, the durability of cellular environment proved beneficial for the chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage regeneration [7, 8].
Collagen is often used as a scaffold during cartilage regeneration. Collagen-gels have been used for in vitro and in vivo cartilage-regeneration experiments [9, 10], with some applied to clinical cases [11, 12]. CartiFill™ (atelocollagen, Sewon Cellontech, Seoul, Korea) is an atelocollagen that satisfies the scaffold criteria and represents an initial structural protein made from osteocytes during the bony healing process. Atelocollagen exhibits an ideal biocompatibility due to reduced antigenicity from the removal of telopeptide and the structural similarity of porcine collagen to human collagen versus bovine collagen. It also aids in the regenerative process through various tissue-specific biological substrates and helps the fibro-cartilaginous complex to fix chondral defect sites more firmly.
We hypothesize that atelocollagen helps regenerate the osteochondral defect that acts as a scaffold for the in vivo animal study and clinical outcomes. This study is a macroscopic observation of the regeneration of articular cartilage in an in vivo animal study; in addition, it shows the efficacy of atelocollagen through an evaluation of clinical and radiologic outcomes in preliminary clinical studies.
Clinical outcomes were measured with the following: American Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Score (AOFAS), the Hannover Ankle Score System (HSS), and a visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline and at 12 months. Patient satisfaction with outcomes was scored by four grades (excellent/good/fair/poor). A post-operative follow-up MRI was done at 12 months and classified according to a Modified Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) score  and a modified Anderson’s score.
Differences between preoperative and post-operative AOFAS, VAS, and HSS were determined using a paired t-test. A Pearson’s correlation test statistically evaluated the postoperative clinical score (AOFAS score, Hannover score, and VAS score) and MOCART score. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant (SPSS 16.0 for Windows, Chicago, Illinois).
In vivo animal study
Histological scoring for in vivo rabbit study
Histological scoring (mean ± SD)
3 % atelocollagen
Mixture of fibrin glue and atelocollagen
21.3 ± 0.6
20.3 ± 0.6
20.0 ± 1.0
17.7 ± 1.5a,b
18.3 ± 0.6
20.0 ± 1.0
15.7 ± 2.1b
13.7 ± 0.6a,b
18.7 ± 0.6
19.7 ± 0.6
14.0 ± 1.0a,b
11.0 ± 1.0a,b,c
19.0 ± 2.0
14.7 ± 1.5a
12.0 ± 1.0a
9.7 ± 2.3a,b
Demographic data of patients receiving operation for enhanced microfracture of the talus
Average patient age (years)
32.9 ± 12.8
25.2 ± 3.1 (24.9 ± 3.5/25.6 ± 2.9)
Average height (cm)
168 ± 6.8 (171 ± 4.5/163 ± 7.0)
Average weight (kg)
71.1 ± 10.2 (73.2 ± 22.8/68.1 ± 9.7)
Average size of osteochondral lesion of talus
71.89 mm2 ± 35.0
Previous operative history
1 (lateral malleolar fracture)
Combined ankle problem
Chronic lateral ankle instability
Os foot subfibulare
S/P LM fracture (implant removal)
Location of osteochondral lesion of talus
Subchondral bone cyst
Subchondral signal increase
History of trauma
Demographic finding of MRI
Initial modified Anderson’s score
Follow-up modified Anderson’s score
Follow-up MOCART score
Comparison of modified Anderson’s MRI-based classification score between preoperative state and 12-month visit outcome
Follow-up MRI (12-month visit)
0 (0 %)
1 (9.1 %)
2 (18.2 %)
4 (36.4 %)
Irregular subchondral bone plate
0 (0 %)
3 (27.3 %)
Formation of subchondral cyst
3 (27.3 %)
2 (18.2 %)
Incomplete separation of fragment
0 (0 %)
1 (9.1 %)
Unattached, undisplaced fragment with synovial fluid around fragment
4 (36.4 %)
0 (0 %)
2 (18.2 %)
0 (0 %)
On the preoperative MRI, three ankles (17.6 %) had bone cysts, and four ankles (23.5 %) had an increased signal of subchondral bone. Two of three ankles with a bone cyst were completely healed and one became 1/5 smaller than the preoperative size. Three of four ankles with an edema of the subchondral bone were significantly reduced; however, a new bone cyst developed from one of them.
The most important finding of the study is verifying the effectiveness of atelocollagen and the mixture of atelocollagen and fibrin glue through an in vivo animal study and the clinical outcome of an operation. Our hypothesis that atelocollagen helps the regeneration of osteochondral defect by acting as a scaffold held true. The result of histology in animal studies indicates that atelocollagen acts as a scaffold at the defect and enhances tissue regeneration by allowing bone marrow cells from the microfracture and surrounding bone (as well as cartilage related cells) to adhere, proliferate, and maturate. Fibrin glue with collagen transform liquid-type collagen to a semi-solid state and can be used as a bioscaffold that provides an increased collagen content, increased numbers of spherically shaped chondrocytes, and elevated mass retention after transplantation . The use of only fibrin glue causes incomplete healing; however, the additional use of atelocollagen optimized healing.
Clinical reports indicate that microfracture is a widely available, simple, and minimally invasive arthroscopic technique associated with good results; however, increasing age, a high BMI, and a large size (lesions >150 mm2) produce poor outcomes . Microfracture demonstrates significantly better improvement than autologous chondrocyte implantation for short-term reults; however, a longer follow-up shows that beneficial results are not maintained despite equivalent clinical outcomes that indicate a deterioration after microfracture [3, 21]. Studies have been conducted for large-sized lesions and cases that are predicted to have poor outcomes from microfracture due to microfracture technique flaws such as the instability of clots. To overcome these factors, various enhanced microfracture techniques using scaffolds or progenitor cells have been developed. A mixture of atelocollagen and fibrin glue-enhanced microfracture was recently developed; in addition, its efficacy was reported in only one-knee and ankle-related article, respectively. Ten patients with knee cartilage defects were treated with a similar technique that reported the following: both good clinical and radiologic results at the 2 year follow-up, an MRI with good filling of the cartilage defects, and a biochemical MRI that suggested hyaline-like repair tissue . The difference between our techniques is that we only used suction drying and Endo Peanut without a CO2 gas drying process. A recent clinical report about the use of the atelocollagen-fibrin-glue matrix was for the treatment of chondral lesions of the talus, with a significant improvement of VAS and AOFAS score at 6 months follow-up of 5 patients . Our study had two times more patients and a longer follow-up that more accurately evaluated the status of osteochondral lesions by comparing post-operative and pre-operative MRI. An autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) and other techniques using various kinds of scaffolds already produced satisfactory results for chondral and osteochondral defects of the knee joint prior to ankle [24–26]. However, limited reports have been published on this novel technique, particularly with the ankle compared to the knee joint. First, the AMIC technique has been applied to both chondral and osteochondral lesions of the ankle . A similar novel technique was introduced by Zantop et al. . In our study, all procedures were done easily using an arthroscopic technique different from other techniques performed by open capsulotomy and without donor site morbidity. Different from the AMIC technique, an atelocollagen matrix was mixed with fibrin glue directly and injected easily into the chondral defect.
Increasing age, high BMI, and large lesions are factors that suggest a poor outcome for microfractures ; however, we saw no statistically negative effects from these factors in this study. Another focus of ours is on an atelocollagen and fibrin glue-enhanced microfracture that can overcome a simple microfracture; however, the demographics of our population (mean age, 32.9 years and BMI, 25.2) do not fully reflect our focus. Only three patients over 50 years old are included and scored a mean AOFAS of 63.3 in pre-op that later improved to 93.3. Among them, two patients received a post-op MRI and modified Anderson score that improved from IV, IIB to I, I, respectively, with an average MOCART of 40. The superiority of collagen-enhanced microfracture for large osteochondral lesions and elderly patients was not conclusively demonstrated. The biggest lesion in this study was 156 mm2, and there were six patients with osteochondral lesions larger than 90 mm2. They scored a mean AOFAS of 64 in pre-op that later improved to 86.7. From this result, we expect that further studies with larger groups will confirm that atelocollagen and fibrin glue-enhanced microfracture are effective for elderly patients and large-size osteochondral lesions.
Subchondral bone conditions such as a bone cyst and signal intensity of the repair tissue are concerns. Involvement of the subchondral bone can be seen as sclerotic changes, cyst formation, or avascular necrosis in large talar lesions . The integrity of the subchondral bone plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ankle osteochondral lesions (OCL); however, there is no consensus on the treatment of these defects. Our technique checked bone cysts through pre-op MRI and tried to completely remove differentiated and debrided lesions with a curette. Subchondral bone around the lesion was decorticated and followed by a 6–7 mm-deep microfracture procedure. Good outcomes were obtained without a bone graft; two of three were completely healed and the other bone cyst was 1/5 times smaller but nearly filled with repair tissue. In addition, 75 % (3/4) of patients were cured of subchondral edema, but one patient developed an additional cyst below the microfracture site with edema. The location of the bone cyst indicates it may have been formed by leaked joint fluid from a tiny gap below the bone bed where the microfracture was performed. The clinical result was good with 87 points at AOFAS. We believe that it is suitable to treat bone cysts using our technique without a bone graft; however, more data is needed to generalize the effectiveness of this technique.
Microfracture predominantly produces fibrocartilage , and many discussions remain about cartilage made from autologous chondrocyte implantation [31–33]. However, the regenerated cartilage in our in vivo study was a hyaline-like cartilage unlike the subsequent microfracture and ACI. A biopsy could not be performed for ethical reasons; however, good quality cartilage was observed by radiological findings after collagen-enhanced microfracture. Consequently, we expect good results from this procedure.
The current study had several limitations. The clinical study was carried in small scale without a control group to effectively evaluate the efficacy of atelocollagen. An on-going randomized controlled study with power calculation under the same protocols will supplement the lack of data from the previous retrospective study. MRI data weakened by losses in follow-up 35.2 % (6/17) may not represent the whole group; however, most patients did not want further evaluation tests because they were satisfied with a mean AOFAS of 89.2. From this result, we expect the mean MRI evaluation of the whole group to improve. There could also be a minimal selection bias in the evaluation of resolution of pain and disability because there were ten cases of instability and two cases of Os subfibulare as company lesion in the object group. Further mid-term and long-term follow-up must be evaluated. In the in vivo study, a quantitative cell study was not performed in the animal study even though the histologic status of cartilage was evaluated; consequently, additional evaluation is required for a quantifiable comparison. The duplication of human OLT is difficult to make in animals since the intrinsic characteristic and surrounding environment of cartilage are different and may be the cause of different clinical study results in clinical study. Therefore, a larger scale clinical study is necessary to evaluate clinical efficacy.
This study is the first to report an in vivo histologic animal study and the clinical results of radiographic evaluation using MRI when atelocollagen was used for treatment. This study is meaningful in revealing predictable results of atelocollagen for chondral lesion with the number of subjects three times larger and the follow-up period twice as long compared to previous clinical trials. The mixture of atelocollagen and fibrin glue-enhanced microfracture in this experiment is a simple one-step procedure with no need to harvest cartilage, no risk of contamination associated with an in vitro cell culture procedure, and is more cost-effective. This technique also showed a potential to overcome simple microfracture flaws and may be a good option for osteochondral lesion treatment.
Good results were obtained in macroscopic and histological assessments of the outcomes of an in vivo animal study. Microfracture with a mixture of atelocollagen and fibrin glue was effective and safe to treat OCL of the talus. Patients showed significant clinical improvement and satisfaction postoperatively. Atelocollagen as a one-step procedure enables a satisfactory treatment of cartilage defects.
Sewon Cellontech provided CartiFill, free of charge.
- Buckwalter JA, Lane NE. Athletics and osteoarthritis. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25:873–81.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dowthwaite GP, Bishop JC, Redman SN, Khan IM, Rooney P, Evans DJ, et al. The surface of articular cartilage contains a progenitor cell population. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:889–97.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Steinwachs MR, Guggi T, Kreuz PC. Marrow stimulation techniques. Injury. 2008;39:26–31.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Becher C, Driessen A, Hess T, Longo UG, Maffulli N, Thermann H. Microfracture for chondral defects of the talus: maintenance of early results at midterm follow-up. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18:656–63.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferkel RD, Zanotti RM, Komenda GA, Sgaglione NA, Cheng MS, Applegate GR, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of chronic osteochondral lesions of the talus: long-term results. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:1750–62.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dorotka R, Windberger U, Macfelda K, Bindreiter U, Toma C, Nehrer S. Repair of articular cartilage defects treated by microfracture and a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Biomaterials. 2005;26:3617–29.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dhollander AA, De Neve F, Almqvist KF, Verdonk R, Lambrecht S, Elewaut D, et al. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis combined with platelet-rich plasma gel: technical description and a five pilot patients report. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19:536–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gille J, Schuseil E, Wimmer J, Gellissen J, Schulz AP, Behrens P. Mid-term results of Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis for treatment of focal cartilage defects in the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18:1456–64.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chaipinyo K, Oakes BW, Van Damme MP. The use of debrided human articular cartilage for autologous chondrocyte implantation: maintenance of chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation in type I collagen gels. J Orthop Res. 2004;22:446–55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mimura T, Imai S, Kubo M, Isoya E, Ando K, Okumura N, et al. A novel exogenous concentration-gradient collagen scaffold augments full-thickness articular cartilage repair. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16:1083–91.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Andereya S, Maus U, Gavenis K, Muller-Rath R, Miltner O, Mumme T, et al. First clinical experiences with a novel 3D-collagen gel (CaReS) for the treatment of focal cartilage defects in the knee. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2006;272:144.Google Scholar
- Ochi M, Uchio Y, Kawasaki K, Wakitani S, Iwasa J. Transplantation of cartilage-like tissue made by tissue engineering in the treatment of cartilage defects of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 2002;84:571–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- International ASTM. Standard guide for in vivo assessment of implantable devices intended to repair or regenerate articular cartilage. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International; 2010. [cited 2014 7, October], Available from: http://www.astm.org/Standards/F2451.htm.Google Scholar
- Wakitani S, Goto T, Pineda SJ, Young RG, Mansour JM, Caplan AI, et al. Mesenchymal cell-based repair of large, full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994;76:579–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pineda S, Pollack A, Stevenson S, Goldberg V, Caplan A. A semiquantitative scale for histologic grading of articular cartilage repair. Acta Anat (Basel). 1992;143:335–40.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- O’Driscoll SW, Keeley FW, Salter RB. Durability of regenerated articular cartilage produced by free autogenous periosteal grafts in major full-thickness defects in joint surfaces under the influence of continuous passive motion. A follow-up report at one year. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988;70:595–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anderson IF, Crichton KJ, Grattan-Smith T, Cooper RA, Brazier D. Osteochondral fractures of the dome of the talus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1989;71:1143–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marlovits S, Striessnig G, Resinger CT, Aldrian SM, Vecsei V, Imhof H, et al. Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Eur J Radiol. 2004;52:310–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fei X, Tan BK, Lee ST, Foo CL, Sun DF, Aw SE. Effect of fibrin glue coating on the formation of new cartilage. Transplant Proc. 2000;32:210–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chuckpaiwong B, Berkson EM, Theodore GH. Microfracture for osteochondral lesions of the ankle: outcome analysis and outcome predictors of 105 cases. Arthroscopy. 2008;24:106–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Knutsen G, Drogset JO, Engebretsen L, Grontvedt T, Isaksen V, Ludvigsen TC, et al. A randomized trial comparing autologous chondrocyte implantation with microfracture. Findings at five years. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:2105–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shetty AA, Kim SJ, Bilagi P, Stelzeneder D. Autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis: single-stage arthroscopic cartilage repair technique. Orthopedics. 2013;36:e648–52.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Volpi P, Bait C, Quaglia A, Redaelli A, Prospero E, Cervellin M, et al. Autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis technique (ACIC) for the treatment of chondral lesions of the talus. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22:1320–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kusano T, Jakob RP, Gautier E, Magnussen RA, Hoogewoud H, Jacobi M. Treatment of isolated chondral and osteochondral defects in the knee by autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC). Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20:2109–15.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gille J, Behrens P, Volpi P, De Girolamo L, Reiss E, Zoch W, et al. Outcome of Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC) in cartilage knee surgery: data of the AMIC Registry. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2013;133:87–93.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dhollander AA, Verdonk PC, Lambrecht S, Almqvist KF, Elewaut D, Verbruggen G, et al. The combination of microfracture and a cell-free polymer-based implant immersed with autologous serum for cartilage defect coverage. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20:1773–80.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wiewiorski M, Leumann A, Buettner O, Pagenstert G, Horisberger M, Valderrabano V. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis aided reconstruction of a large focal osteochondral lesion of the talus. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2011;131:293–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zantop T, Petersen W. Arthroscopic implantation of a matrix to cover large chondral defect during microfracture. Arthroscopy. 2009;25:1354–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barnes CJ, Ferkel RD. Arthroscopic debridement and drilling of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Foot Ankle Clin. 2003;8:243–57.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bedi A, Feeley BT, Williams 3rd RJ. Management of articular cartilage defects of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:994–1009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Whittaker JP, Smith G, Makwana N, Roberts S, Harrison PE, Laing P, et al. Early results of autologous chondrocyte implantation in the talus. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 2005;87:179–83.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Knutsen G, Engebretsen L, Ludvigsen TC, Drogset JO, Grontvedt T, Solheim E, et al. Autologous chondrocyte implantation compared with microfracture in the knee. A randomized trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A:455–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L. Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:889–95.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.