- Research article
- Open Access
Risk factors for predicting increased surgical drain output in patients after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 21 September 2017
Accepted: 9 December 2017
Published: 28 December 2017
Although measures to reduce and treat the postoperative surgical drain output are discussed, along with the increased interest in causative factors related to the prevention and treatment reported by many studies, these are still controversial.
A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive series of 217 patients who had underwent ACCF between January 2016 and March 2017. Patients were categorized based on normal or increased total drain output. These two groups were compared for demographic distribution and clinical data to investigate the predictive factors of increased drain output by multivariate analysis.
The overall incidence rate of increased drain output after ACCF was 16.6%. There are no significant differences in sex, BMI, history of taking aspirin, and ASA classification between the two groups (P > 0.05). Of the patients with increased drain output, a significantly higher proportion of patients have OPLL in the surgical level, 18 (50.0%) versus 33 (18.2%) (P = 0.000). The mean age was 60.67 ± 8.18 years versus 54.41 ± 10.05 years (P = 0.001). Number of discs involved was 2.42 ± 0.50 versus 2.02 ± 0.65 (P = 0.001). Operation time was 112.22 ± 16.49 min versus 105.21 ± 17.89 min (P = 0.031). Intraoperative blood loss was 109.86 ± 62.02 mL versus 87.83 ± 56.40 mL (P = 0.036). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR, 1.075; p = 0.003), history of smoking (OR, 2.792; p = 0.021), OPLL in surgical level (OR, 2.107; p = 0.001), and number of discs involved (OR, 2.764; p = 0.003) maintained its significance in predicting likelihood of increased surgical drain output.
The occurrence of increased drain output after ACCF is most likely multifactorial and is related to age, history of smoking, OPLL in surgical level, and number of discs involved.
Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) has become a mainstay of treatment for a wide array of cervical pathologies ranging from cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) to deformity correction. While offering the benefit of maximal decompression and minimizing graft interfaces,  the procedure is not without drawbacks. In addition to the risks associated with the surgery itself, the blood loss associated with cervical surgery is greater than that with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).
Conventional closed-suction drainage is widely used in spine surgery. In theory, it prevents the formation of hematomas in the operative field, decreases the tension of closed incisions, contributes in avoiding delayed wound healing, and reduces the risk of infection [2, 3]. However, the current literatures in hip and knee arthroplasty research have not shown any additional advantages in such areas as infection, blood loss, changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit, and postoperative function [4–7]. Drainage was also considered unnecessary in the study of orthopedic trauma surgery [8, 9]. Furthermore, some studies have found that active closed-suction drainage is associated with an increase of postoperative wound infection and blood transfusions in spinal surgery [10–12].
Considering the unique and potentially life-threatening complications of neck hematoma (such as airway obstruction), many spine surgeons are reluctant to abandon the use of postoperative drainage in ACCF [13, 14]. Measures to reduce and treat the postoperative surgical drain output are discussed, along with the increased interest in causative factors related to the prevention and treatment reported by many studies. Nevertheless, these are still controversial. Therefore, the identification and quantification of risk factors for increased surgical drain output in patients after ACCF are of paramount importance to the patient and the clinician. In addition to its obvious importance for patient safety, risk factor information becomes critical as health care policy makers implement and enforce “quality” metrics.
This retrospective cohort study was undertaken to investigate (1) the overall incidence of increased surgical drain output in a large population of patients with a background degenerative cervical condition treated with ACCF and (2) the predictive factors for the development of increased surgical drain output in patients after ACCF.
We examined data from a consecutive series of 217 patients who had underwent ACCF by one senior surgeon for degenerative cervical disease between January 2016 and March 2017, at one academic hospital—a university-based medical center. This research was approved by the ethics committee of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Those patients underwent surgery for non-degenerative disease (trauma, infection, tumor, deformity, and inflammation), total disc replacement, concomitant posterior cervical arthrodesis, thoracic or lumbar spine surgery, or other unrelated procedures were excluded from analysis. Those patients who had increased drain output were defined as drain output more than 50 ml. The cohort identified was divided into patients with drain output more than 50 ml and those who did not (control). Drain output was measured and recorded twice a day in 12-h shifts (at 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.). The drain was routinely removed when the drain output per 12-h shift was < 5 mL.
Demographic data included age, gender, smoking history, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, preoperative hematocrit, history of smoking, and history of major medical comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, or history of taking aspirin). Surgical data collected included number of discs involved and type of bone graft (autograft vs. allograft). In addition, computed tomography (CT) was used to investigate whether there had been an ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the surgical level.
The estimated blood loss was based on the use of the blood loss in the suction canister (accounting for irrigation used on the surgical field) plus the blood loss estimated from the difference in weights of dry and blood-soaked sponges. Routine preoperative and postoperative hematocrit were taken from patients’ lab values.
Factors associated with increased drain output were identified using univariate analysis. The data analysis was performed using SPSS version 19.0 (Chicago, IL, USA).Continuous data were compared between the two groups using the student t test, whereas discontinuous data were analyzed using the chi-squared test. Fisher’s exact test was used for small data subsets (n < 5). All significance tests were two-tailed, with p < 0.05 representing statistical significance. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify which factors helped predict the probability of an increased drain output.
Demographic characteristics and surgery related factors of the patients
Patients with increased surgical drain output
Yes (n = 36)
No (n = 181)
60.67 ± 8.18
54.41 ± 10.05
Sex, n (%)
24.62 ± 4.04
25.44 ± 3.05
Preoperative systolic pressure
132.92 ± 15.14
130.99 ± 14.64
Preoperative diastolic pressure
78.25 ± 11.79
78.64 ± 11.33
OPLL in the surgical level, n (%)
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)
History of taking aspirin, n (%)
History of smoking, n (%)
ASA classification, n (%)
Number of discs involved
2.42 ± 0.50
2.02 ± 0.65
Intraoperative and postoperative data
Comparing variables in patients with and without increased surgical drain output
Patients with increased surgical drain output
Yes (n = 36)
No (n = 181)
Operation time (min)
112.22 ± 16.49
105.21 ± 17.89
Intraoperative blood loss (mL)
109.86 ± 62.02
87.83 ± 56.40
94.44 ± 37.70
16.17 ± 14.27
Length of drainage (h)
86.00 ± 25.25
50.87 ± 17.67
135.86 ± 11.60
138.27 ± 14.19
Day 1 postoperation
128.06 ± 11.65
129.33 ± 13.03
130.92 ± 13.31
132.38 ± 15.64
39.95 ± 3.24
40.64 ± 3.83
Day 1 postoperation
37.98 ± 4.03
37.79 ± 3.83
38.27 ± 3.81
38.95 ± 3.39
Length of stay (d)
5.17 ± 1.23
4.62 ± 1.45
Comparisons of incidences of bleeding-related wound problems in patients with and without increased surgical drain output
Patients with increased surgical drain output
Yes (n = 36)
No (n = 181)
Dressing reinforcement, n (%)
Oozing, n (%)
Subcutaneous hematoma, n (%)
Ecchymosis, n (%)
Infection, n (%)
Predictive factors of increased surgical drain output
Multivariate regression model predicting increased surgical drain output
95% confidence interval
History of smoking
OPLL in the surgical level
Number of discs involved
A thorough understanding of the development of increased surgical drain output in cervical degenerative population treated with ACCF is a critical component to assist surgeons with the decision of whether or not to place a drain postoperatively. Although previous reports have challenged the efficacy of drains for many surgical procedures, little has assessed the necessity of drain use after ACCF [15–18]. This study compared the patients who underwent ACCF with increased surgical drain output and those who did not. The results indicate that age, OPLL in surgical level, number of discs involved, and history of smoking (highest ORs) were best predictors of increased surgical drain output for patients who underwent ACDF rather than gender, BMI, preoperative systolic pressure, diabetes mellitus history, history of taking aspirin, ASA classification, and other clinical characteristics.
It has been previously suggested that age was associated with an increased prevalence of increased drain output following spine surgery. Basques et al. found that patients with age 50 years or more were more likely to have increased drain output following ACDF and deduced that this effect may be due to delayed wound healing associated with increased age . Similarly, Sokolowski et al. found that advanced age is an independent risk factor associated with postoperative hematoma volume.  In line with the studies of Basques et al. and Sokolowski et al., our study demonstrated that age was one of the most accurate indicators for an increased risk of increased drain output following ACCF. A possible explanation may be due to the decreased vascular elasticity and delayed wound healing with increased age, suggesting that postoperative drainage should be carefully considered in patients who underwent ACCF whose age is more than 50 years old.
Many studies have focused on the patients’ history of smoking that has been associated with many deleterious effects for surgical outcomes after musculoskeletal surgery, including decreased wound healing, increased surgical site infections, impaired fracture healing, nonunion, and increased perioperative blood loss [20–22]. In a study reported by Park et al. that involved 5280 patients undergoing single-level lumbar fusion surgery, the authors reported that smoking was a major risk factor for postoperative hematoma requiring reoperation after single-level lumbar fusion surgery . In addition, smoking history has been found to increase the risk of postoperative bleeding in other neck surgery [24, 25]. This may be explained by the negative effect of smoking on the platelet membrane and its natural function. Intensive smoking cessation interventions such as individual counseling and nicotine replacement therapy administered for a period of 4 to 8 weeks before surgery seem to have the greatest effect on not only reduction of risk of complications but also increase of short and long-term cessation of smoking. Therefore, this smoking cessation program should be should be encouraged prior to ACCF.
The present study is the first report that mentions the OPLL in the surgical level as one of the independent predictors for increased surgical drain output for patients who underwent ACCF based on the analysis of the largest number of surgical subjects at a single institution. Kato et al. found that laminoplasty for OPLL is associated with a risk of major intraoperative blood loss, which can potentially give rise to devastating postoperative complications . Also, Chiba et al. and Kishiya et al. compared the amount of blood loss in OPLL and cervical spondylosis myelopathy and indicated that the blood loss was greater in the OPLL group [27, 28]. We hypothesize that the bleeding tendency in patients with OPLL is caused by the abnormality of angiogenesis associated with ectopic bone formation. Therefore, we think routine use of hemostatic agents with different mechanisms of action such as absorbable gelatin sponge or tranexamic acid is of great importance in patients who underwent ACCF and who have OPLL in the surgical level to control perioperative bleeding.
The findings of this study should be viewed after considering the following limitations. Firstly, these data represent the experience at a single institution that is an academic tertiary care center with trainees in the anesthesia, orthopedic, neurosurgical, and nursing departments. Secondly, this study is a retrospective research and the results are compromised as a result of relatively limited sample and nonrandomized design. In addition, while this study describes factors predicting increased drain output, it is still not known what level of drain output can be directly linked to increased risk of clinical complications. Finally, we also acknowledge the limitations introduced by our patients’ clinical heterogeneity.
The risks for increased drain output following ACCF are multifactorial. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggests that age, history of smoking, OPLL in surgical level, and number of discs involved may be reasonable predictions for an individual likelihood of increased drain output following ACCF. The results of this study suggest that younger patients without a smoking history or OPLL who are undergoing a single-level ACCF are less likely to have increased drain output. Drains may not be necessary in this population, although further research is needed to support this conclusion. It is our hope that thru these predictive measures, the surgeon might be able to improve surgical planning, advise the patient accordingly during the consent-taking process, and apply strategies that would help in reducing the risk of increased drain output from occurring.
There is no funding source.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
JH and JL conceived and designed the study. HY and FD collected and analyzed the data. JL and CC made the statistics and have written the manuscript. JL, JH, and CC reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Informed consent was obtained from all the individual participants included in the study. The study was conducted according to the Helsinki Declaration (Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects) and was approved by the ethics committee of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.
Consent for publication
We have obtained permission from the participants to use and publish their data with fully informed consent, and the consent form has been signed by every participant.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Fountas KN, Kapsalaki EZ, Nikolakakos LG, et al. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion associated complications. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32(21):2310–7. DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e318154c57e.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Holt BT, Parks NL, Engh GA, et al. Comparison of closed-suction drainage and no drainage after primary total knee arthroplasty. Orthopedics. 1997;20(12):1121–4. discussion 1124–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim YH, Cho SH, Kim RS. Drainage versus nondrainage in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasties. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1998;347:188–93.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou XD, Li J, Xiong Y, et al. Do we really need closed-suction drainage in total hip arthroplasty? A meta-analysis. Int Orthop. 2013;37(11):2109–18. DOI: 10.1007/s00264-013-2053-8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Parker MJ, Roberts CP, Hay D. Closed suction drainage for hip and knee arthroplasty. A meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(6):1146–52.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- González DVA, Slullitel G, Vestri R, et al. No need for routine closed suction drainage in elective arthroplasty of the hip: a prospective randomized trial in 104 operations. Acta Orthop Scand. 2004;75(1):30–3. DOI: 10.1080/00016470410001708050.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ritter MA, Keating EM, Faris PM. Closed wound drainage in total hip or total knee replacement. A prospective, randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994;76(1):35–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lang GJ, Richardson M, Bosse MJ, et al. Efficacy of surgical wound drainage in orthopaedic trauma patients: a randomized prospective trial. J Orthop Trauma. 1998;12(5):348–50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cobb JP. Why use drains?[J]. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990;72(6):993–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blank J, Flynn JM, Bronson W, et al. The use of postoperative subcutaneous closed suction drainage after posterior spinal fusion in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2003;16(6):508–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rao SB, Vasquez G, Harrop J, et al. Risk factors for surgical site infections following spinal fusion procedures: a case–control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(7):686–92. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir506.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Diab M, Smucny M, Dormans JP, et al. Use and outcomes of wound drain in spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37(11):966–73. DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31823bbf0b.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sethi R, Tandon MS, Ganjoo P. Neck hematoma causing acute airway and hemodynamic compromise after anterior cervical spine surgery. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2008;20(1):69–70. DOI: 10.1097/ANA.0b013e318157f749.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuhn JE, Graziano GP. Airway compromise as a result of retropharyngeal hematoma following cervical spine injury. J Spinal Disord. 1991;4(3):264–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kogure K, Node Y, Tamaki T, et al. Indwelling drains are not necessary for patients undergoing one-level anterior cervical fixation surgery. J Nippon Med Sch. 2015;82(3):124–9. DOI: 10.1272/jnms.82.124.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Samraj K, Gurusamy KS. Wound drains following thyroid surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;4:CD006099. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006099.pub2.Google Scholar
- Lee SW, Choi EC, Lee YM, et al. Is lack of placement of drains after thyroidectomy with central neck dissection safe? A prospective, randomized study. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(9):1632–5. DOI: 10.1097/01.mlg.0000231314.86486.be.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Basques BA, Bohl DD, Golinvaux NS, et al. Factors predictive of increased surgical drain output after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014;39(9):728–35. DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000237.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sokolowski MJ, Garvey TA, Perl J, et al. Prospective study of postoperative lumbar epidural hematoma: incidence and risk factors. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33(1):108–13. DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31815e39af.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McCunniff PT, Young ES, Ahmadinia K, et al. Smoking is associated with increased blood loss and transfusion use after lumbar spinal surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016;474(4):1019–25. DOI: 10.1007/s11999-015-4650-x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Argintar E, Triantafillou K, Delahay J, et al. The musculoskeletal effects of perioperative smoking. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012;20(6):359–63. DOI: 10.5435/JAAOS-20-06-359.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee JJ, Patel R, Biermann JS, et al. The musculoskeletal effects of cigarette smoking. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95(9):850–9. DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00375.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park JH, Li G, Kim M. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative hematoma requiring reoperation in single-level lumbar fusion surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017;42(6):428–36. DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001768.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morton RP, Mak V, Moss D, et al. Risk of bleeding after thyroid surgery: matched pairs analysis. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126(3):285–8. DOI: 10.1017/S0022215111001460.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Demars SM, Harsha WJ, Crawford JV. The effects of smoking on the rate of postoperative hemorrhage after tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134(8):811–4. DOI: 10.1001/archotol.134.8.811.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kato S, Chikuda H, Seichi A, et al. Radiographical risk factors for major intraoperative blood loss during laminoplasty in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37(25):E1588–93. DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182712b74.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chiba K, Ogawa Y, Ishii K, et al. Long-term results of expansive open-door laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy—average 14-year follow-up study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31(26):2998–3005. DOI: 10.1097/01.brs.0000250307.78987.6b.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kishiya M, Furukawa K, Yokoyama T, et al. Comparison of cardiovascular parameters between patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2009;22(5):361–6. DOI: 10.1097/BSD.0b013e31817eee55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar