- Research article
- Open Access
Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine
© Doi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 27 September 2010
Accepted: 14 January 2011
Published: 14 January 2011
Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine.
For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9), 400 adolescents (ages 10-19) and 400 adults (ages 20-29), with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree), right (> +1 degree), and left (< -1 degree).
In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p < 0.01) and in adult group (p < 0.001) compared to the child group. There was no significant difference in curvature pattern between adolescent and adult group.
Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.
Coronal side curvature deformity, trunk asymmetry, and spinal body rotation are observed in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Many studies have been conducted to elucidate the etiology of scoliosis [1, 2]. In spite of these numerous investigations, it is still unclear why AIS begins in adolescence and why right thoracic scoliosis is more common than left thoracic scoliosis.
Trunk asymmetry [1, 3, 4], right thoracic vertebral rotation , and right thoracic curvature have been reported in the normal spine [6, 7]. Trunk asymmetry is prominent after adolescence . The above characteristics resemble the deformities observed in AIS. The prevalence of scoliosis curves with angles greater than 10 degrees is reported to range from 0.5% to 3% [9–11]. This curvature data is based on the spines of students undergoing scoliosis screening, however, there is no information on the distribution of thoracic side curvature in the normal spine. Moreover, there is no data on whether or not thoracic side curvature changes during growth. In this study, we studied thoracic curvatures using standing chest radiographs of children, adolescents, and adult patients who came to our hospital with no obvious chest or spinal diseases.
To study the extent of thoracic scoliosis deformities, we evaluated 44 consecutive patients without congenital and symptomatic scoliosis who were seen at our hospital between January 2008 and December 2008. For these patients, Cobb angles ranged from 15 to 75 degrees (average 39.1), ages ranged from 5 to 19 years old (average 12.7), and 2 were male and 42 were female.
Normal spinal measurements
We recruited a standing posteroanterior chest radiographs on 1,200 patients, who were seen at our hospital, from January 2008 to August 2008. Patients with a scoliosis curve of over 10 degrees and obvious chest and spine disease seen in radiograph were excluded. We evaluated three groups of patients: children (ages 4-9), adolescents (ages 10-19), and adults (ages 20-29). Two hundred consecutive individuals, both male and female, were measured for each group (total 1200 patients).
The degree of curvature was assessed with the Cobb method . For the measurement of the Cobb angle in scoliosis patients, standing AP radiographs were undertaken using a long-cassette radiographs of the spine. Radiographs were transferred on computer screen by Fuji Synapse System (FujiFilm holdings, Tokyo, Japan) and the upper and lower end vertebrae were determined, and degrees of two lines along with each end vertebrae were calculated by the angle measurer (Fuji Synapse System). For the measurement of the Cobb angle in 1,200 normal spines, standing chest PA radiographs were obtained. On the computer screen using Fuji Synapse angle measurer, a line is drawn along the superior end plate of T5 and a second line drawn along the lower end plate of T12. If the end plate was indistinct the line was drawn through the pedicles. A right convex curve was assigned a positive value, and a left curve a negative value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree), right (> +1 degree), and left (< -1 degree). The curvature pattern difference in each generation was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc test.
Intra-observer and inter-observer reliability
Three orthopaedic surgeons (observer 1, observer 2, and observer 3) were familiarized with the computer program and also taught how to place the vertebral landmarks on the computer monitor. The measurements were carried out twice on different occasions with 12 radiographs. The intervals between measurements were at least 2 weeks. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was assessed by the interclass correlation coefficient.
Prism statistical software was used for statistical analysis. Statistical methods included the Kruskal-Wallis test.
Thoracic curvature in scoliosis patient
Thoracic right curvature in the normal spine
To evaluate the curvature in the normal spine, Cobb angles from T5 to T12 were measured using a standing chest radiographs. As it is difficult to identify vertebral bodies on standing chest Radiographs, the contrast was changed to facilitate recognition.
Intraobserver reliability analysis for the measurement of Cobb angle.
Interclass correlation coefficient
Observer 1 (N = 12)
Observer 2 (N = 12)
Observer 3 (N = 12)
Intrerobserver reliability analysis for the measurement of Cobb angle.
Interclass correlation coefficient
95% confidence interval
Cobb angle measuremet (N = 36)
Right thoracic scoliosis, trunk asymmetry, and thoracic vertebral right rotation are among the characteristics of AIS. Even in the normal spine, trunk asymmetry  and thoracic vertebral right rotation [4, 5] have been reported. Trunk asymmetry may become prominent in the normal spine after adolescence . Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine [6, 7]. Much data on the prevalence of scoliosis are based on school screening examinations, scapular prominence, asymmetric shoulder levels, and rib humps observed during the forward-bending test [10, 11, 13]. Side curvature has been detected in about 2% of school children using scoliosis screening. Only individuals suspected of having scoliosis undergo a radiograph, and therefore the distribution patterns of side curvature and the average curves of the normal spine are unknown. To determine the distribution pattern of thoracic curvature in the normal spine, we measured the curvature using standing chest radiographs in the normal spines of children, adolescents, and adults.
In AIS, curvature is prominent during adolescence and worsens during growth spurts. Interestingly, right thoracic curvature was also observed in normal spines and was prominent after adolescence (Figure 3), thus resembling the pattern observed in AIS.
The ratio of boys to girls impacted by AIS is equal for minor curves, yet as the magnitude of the curvature increases more girls are affected, with the ratio reaching 1:8 for those requiring treatment [9, 10, 14]. Our study suggests that the degree of right thoracic curvature in the normal spine is the same in males and females.
There are inherent limitations of the study - the 1200 subjects recruited are not true 'normal controls' randomly selected but were actually recruited from subjects attending hospital due to other medical condition or for check up. For normal spinal observations, we used patients without obvious chest and spinal diseases as determined by chest radiographs because the literature suggests that patients who have congenital heart disease are more likely to have scoliosis [15–17]. It is possible, however, that our study population had heart and lung diseases that were not indicated on the chest radiographs, and it would therefore be ideal to recruit normal volunteer. However, it is difficult to require healthy subjects to undergo radiographic examinations because of the unnecessary exposure to radiation and the ethical problems. The other limitation of the study is the lack of sagittal profile information of the spine. It is useful to examine the CT scan for the analysis of sagittal curvature, however, it is also difficult to require healthy subjects to undergo CT scans by obvious ethical reasons.
In addition to trunk asymmetry and rightward vertebral body rotation in the normal spine, we demonstrated the presence of right thoracic curvature. These deformities have the same features as AIS. Moreover, they become prominent after adolescence, which follows the same trend observed in AIS. These findings support the possibility that the worsening of deformities existing in normal individuals is the mechanism of AIS progression. An as yet unidentified factor (or factors) may exist that evokes a right thoracic curvature in the normal spine, for example heart location as shown by a study of dextrocardia , and when it worsens AIS may occur. Further studies should be conducted to examine in more detail the mechanism in which deformities in the normal spine are involved in the etiology of AIS.
Measurements of standing chest radiographs were used to study the thoracic side curvature in normal spines. A significant right thoracic curvature in the normal spine was observed after adolescence.
- Burwell RG, James NJ, Johnson F, Webb JK, Wilson YG: Standardised trunk asymmetry scores. A study of back contour in healthy school children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1983, 65: 452-463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kouwenhoven JW, Castelein RM: The pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008, 33: 2898-2908.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vercauteren M, Van Beneden M, Verplaetse R, Croene P, Uyttendaele D, Verdonk R: Trunk asymmetries in a Belgian school population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1982, 7: 555-562.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grivas TB, Vasiliadis ES, Koufopoulos G, Segos D, Triantafyllopoulos G, Mouzakis V: Study of trunk asymmetry in normal children and adolescents. Scoliosis. 2006, 1: 19-10.1186/1748-7161-1-19.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kouwenhoven JW, Vincken KL, Bartels LW, Castelein RM: Analysis of preexistent vertebral rotation in the normal spine. Spine. 2006, 31: 1467-1472. 10.1097/01.brs.0000219938.14686.b3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldberg C, Dowling FE: Handedness and scoliosis convexity: a reappraisal. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1990, 15: 61-64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taylor JR: Vascular causes of vertebral asymmetry and the laterality of scoliosis. Med J Aust. 1986, 144: 533-535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grivas TB, Vasiliadis ES, Mihas C, Triantafyllopoulos G, Kaspiris A: Trunk asymmetry in juveniles. Scoliosis. 2008, 3: 13-10.1186/1748-7161-3-13.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parent S, Newton PO, Wenger DR: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: etiology, anatomy, natural history, and bracing. Instr Course Lect. 2005, 54: 529-536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lonstein JE, Bjorklund S, Wanninger MH, Nelson RP: Voluntary school screening for scoliosis in Minnesota. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1982, 64: 481-488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brooks HL, Azen SP, Gerberg E, Brooks R, Chan L: Scoliosis: A prospective epidemiological study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1975, 57: 968-972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cobb JR: Outline for the study of scoliosis. Instr Course Lect. 1948, 5: 261-275.Google Scholar
- Soucacos PN, Soucacos PK, Zacharis KC, Beris AE, Xenakis TA: School-screening for scoliosis. A prospective epidemiological study in northwestern and central Greece. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997, 79: 1498-1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bunnell WP: The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis before skeletal maturity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1986, 11: 773-776.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luke MJ, McDonnell EJ: Congenital heart disease and scoliosis. J Pediatr. 1968, 73: 725-733. 10.1016/S0022-3476(68)80178-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Niebauer JJ, Wright WD: Congenital heart disease and scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1956, 38-A: 1131-1136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roth A, Rosenthal A, Hall JE, Mizel M: Scoliosis and congenital heart disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1973, 95-102. 10.1097/00003086-197306000-00011.Google Scholar
- Tallroth K, Lohman M, Heliovaara M, Aromaa A, Knekt P, Standertskjold-Nordenstam CG: Dextrocardia and coronal alignment of thoracic curve: a population study. Eur Spine J. 2009, 18: 1941-1945. 10.1007/s00586-009-1049-y.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.