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Table 1 Characteristics and baseline of included studies

From: Effects of fibular strut augmentation for the open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID County Study type Interventions Sample size Age (year) Gender Fracture type Follow-up period Result
Neer classification system AO classification system
Male Female 2-part 3-part 4-part
Chen 2018 China retrospective FSA + LCP 47 68.6 12 35   12 35   33.5 loss of reduction (>5 mm), functional outcomes (DASH, CMS) and complications
    LCP 42 69.12 15 27   10 32   35.2
Cui 2019 China retrospective FSA + LCP 25 73.16 7 18   17 8   31.56 radiological changes in NSA and HHH, functional outcomes (DASH, CMS), ROM and complications
    LCP 35 72.46 11 24   25 10   32.23
Davids 2020 America retrospective FSA + LCP 27 59.9 (19 to 90) total 102: male 31, female 71 total 102: 2-part 53;
3-part 49
  mean 17.6 functional outcomes (DASH, SST scores), VAS, ROM and complications
    LCP 75
Kim 2020 South Korea; retrospective FSA + LCP 34 73.8 ± 5.80 13 21     A2 2; A3 13; B1 6; B2 11; B3 2 16.2 ± 3.74 average bone union time, mean NAS, CMS, ROM and complications
   LCP 29 73.8 ± 5.80 12 17     A2 3; A3 11; B1 4; B2 10; B3 1 18.6 ± 6.77  
Lee 2019 South Korea retrospective FSA + LCP 45 75.6 (55 to 87) 12 33 21 20 4   13.6 (12 to 17) radiological changes in NSA and HHH, functional outcomes (DASH, CMS), VAS, ROM and complications
   LCP 52 73.3 (52 to 89) 14 38 25 22 5   14.2 (12 to 19)  
Wang 2019 China retrospective FSA + LCP 39 72.2 ± 5.9 16 23    39   19 (12 to 34) the final CCD angle, functional outcome (ASES) and complications
    FSA + LCP 43 72.7 ± 5.6 14 29    43    
    LCP 46 72.5 ± 5.0 13 33    46    
Zhao 2019 China retrospective FSA + LCP 21 68.8 ± 6.3 11 10   14 7   12 radiological changes in NSA and HHH, functional outcomes (CMS, ASES, DASH), VAS and complications
    LCP 21 69.0 ± 7.2 12 9   15 6   12  
Tuerxun 2020 China retrospective FSA + LCP 41 64.1(34 to 89) 12 29 6 19 16   16.3 radiological changes in NSA and HHH, functional outcomes (CMS) and complications
    LCP 22 64.1(35 to 83) 9 13 3 10 9   16.3  
  1. ASES American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Score, CCD Angle central column diaphyseal varus angle, CMS Constant–Murley score, DASH Disability of arm–shoulder–hand score, FSA fibular strut augmentation, HHH humeral head height, LCP locking plate, NSA neck–shaft angle, SST Simple Shoulder Test, VAS visual analogue scale