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Table 1 Characteristics of eligible randomized controlled trials

From: The combined effect of vitamin K and calcium on bone mineral density in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Year Vitamin K/d Ca/d Type Follow-up Country BMI(k/gm) Age No. (intervention/control, subjects) Outcomes Lumbar vertebrae BMD(mg/cm2) Total femoral BMD(mg/cm2) Femoral neck BMD(mg/cm2) UcOC, based on baseline percentage change
Ronn (K2) 2020 375 μg 800 mg K2 3 year Denmark NR 67.4 62/57 Femoral neck, hip NR NR − 10/− 8 NR
Zhang et al. (K2) 2020 90 µg 500 mg K2 1 year China 23.5 65.9 81/74 Lumbar spine, femoral neck, hip 2/− 4 NR − 3/− 3 NR
Kanellakis et al.(K2) 2012 100 μg 800 mg K2 1 year Greece 29.43 62 24/26 Lumbar spine, UcOC, total body 6/− 32 13/24 NR − 23.6/28.7
Kanellakis et al. (K1) 2012 100 μg 800 mg K1 1 year Greece 30.06 62 26/26 Lumbar spine, UcOC, total body 16/− 32 13/24 NR − 13.6/28.7
Je et al. (K2) 2011 45 mg 1200 mg K2 4 year Korea NR 67.3 18/27 Lumbar spine, UcOC, femoral neck 10/− 8 NR 10/10 − 72.2/− 25
Moschonis et al.(K2) 2011 100 μg 800 mg K2 1 year Greece 29.65 62 24/39 Lumbar spine, UcOC, total body 6/− 8 13/− 1 NR − 23.6/12.8
Moschonis et al. (K1) 2011 100 μg 800 mg K1 1 year Greece 30 62 26/39 Lumbar spine, UcOC, total body 16/− 8 13/− 1 NR − 13.6/12.8
Shiraki (K2) 2009 45 mg 133 mg K2 0.5 year Japan NR 68 55/49 UcOC NR NR NR − 57.1/− 25
Booth et al. (MK1) 2008 500 μg 600 mg K1 3 year America NR 69 95/90 Lumbar spine, UcOC, femoral neck, total body 44/43 − 9/− 8 − 1/5 − 18.5/0.8
Booth et al.(WK1) 2008 500 μg 600 mg K1 3 year America NR 68 134/133 Lumbar spine, femoral neck, total body, UcOC 9/9 − 18/− 18 − 9/− 8 − 18.7/3.1
Cheung (K1) 2008 5 mg 1500 mg K1 4 year Canada 26.1 58.9 33/40 Lumbar spine, UcOC, femoral neck, hip − 3.2/− 4.9 NR − 14.2/− 19.2 − 21.2/− 2
Bolton (K1) 2007 30 μg 1000 mg K1 2 year Scottish 26.15 67.8 49/56 Femoral neck, radius NR NR 1/0.7 NR
Purwosunu (K2) 2006 45 mg 1500 mg K2 1 year Indonesia 23.8 60.9 33/30 Lumbar spine, UcOC 1.74/1.4 NR NR − 58.3/− 9.9