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Table 2 Clinical outcomes 3 and 12 months after surgery for 42 patients with ankle fracture

From: Association of acute inflammatory cytokines, fracture malreduction, and functional outcome 12 months after intra-articular ankle fracture—a prospective cohort study of 46 patients with ankle fractures

AOFAS score—3 months (mean ± SD) 72.8 ± 13.6
AOFAS score—12 months (mean ± SD) 80.8 ± 13.1
FFI-DK score—3 months (mean ± SD) 71.7 ± 48.1
FFI-DK score—12 months (mean ± SD) 45.5 ± 46.9
EQ-5D-5L index score 3 months (mean ± SD) 0.69 ± 0.13
EQ-5D-5L index score 12 months (mean ± SD) 0.75 ± 0.16
Kellgren-Lawrence score—12 months 1.5 ± 0.9
Joint space narrowing after–12 months (mm) − 0.13 ± 0.48
VAS pain score—3 months at rest (mean ± SD) 1.9 ± 1.8
VAS pain score—3 months on activity (mean ± SD) 3.6 ± 2.6
VAS-score—12 months at rest (mean ± SD) 1.0 ± 1.4
VAS-score—12 months on activity (mean ± SD) 2.5 ± 2.4
Ankle swelling—3 months from surgery (mean ± SD) (cm) 2.2 ± 1.3
Ankle swelling—12 months from surgery (mean ± SD) (cm) 1.2 ± 1.0
Returned to work—3 months from surgery (yes/no) (67.7%/32.5%)
Returned to work—12 months from surgery (yes/no) (83.3%/16.7%)
Mobilization after 3 months
 1: Still need assistive devices 15.0%
 2: Can walk without assistive devices 7.5%
 3: Can walk more than 500 m without assistive devices 70.0%
 4: Returned to normal mobilization 7.5%
Mobilization after 12 months
 1: Still need assistive devices 0.0%
 2: Can walk without assistive devices 0.0%
 3: Can walk more than 500 m without assistive devices 56.1%
 4: Returned to normal mobilization 43.9%
  1. AOFAS (range 0–100 points, where 100 = healthy ankle), FFI-DK (range 0–230 points, a high score indicating poor outcome), EQ-5D-5L index score (range − 0.224 to 1, where 1 corresponds to full health and negative values reflect health states worse than death). Kellgren-Lawrence score (grade 0–4, a higher score reflecting more severe osteoarthritis)