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Table 4 Surgical protocols

From: Intra-articular vs. intravenous administration: a meta-analysis of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty

Study Thromboprophylaxis DVT screening method Prosthetic properties Blood transfusion protocol Tourniquet Drainage
Jules-Elysee et al. [14] Unclear Unclear Cemented Unclear Yes Clamped for 4 h
Laoruengthana et al. [13] LMWH/warfarin Unclear Cemented Hb < 9.0 g/L Yes Clamped for 3 h
Zhang et al. [15, 52] Rivaroxaban Doppler ultrasound Cemented Unclear Yes Unclear
Abdel et al. [20] Aspirin/warfarin Unclear Cemented Hb < 7.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Unclear
Ahmed et al. [17] Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
López-Hualda et al. [21] Unclear Unclear Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL + symptoms Yes Unclear
George et al. [16] LMWH/aspirin Doppler ultrasound Cemented Hb < 7.0 g/dL Yes Unclear
Subramanyam et al. [19] Aspirin
Calf pump
Clinical examination
Doppler ultrasound
Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes No drain
Wei et al. [18] LMWH Unclear Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Unclear
Goyal et al. [36] LMWH/aspirin Compression stocking Doppler ultrasound Hybrid Hb < 7.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
No Closed
Lacko et al. [22] Unclear Doppler ultrasound Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 9.0 + symptoms
Yes Unclear
Maniar et al. [33] LMWH
Ankle pumping exercise
Compression stocking
Clinical examination
Doppler ultrasound
Cemented Hn < 8.5 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 2 h
Prakash et al. [26] LMWH
Calf pump
Doppler ultrasound
Chest CT
Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL Yes Clamped for 30 min
Song et al. [35] LMWH in high-risk patient Doppler ultrasound
Chest CT
Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL Yes Clamped for 10 min
Stowers et al. [24] Aspirin Clinical examination Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes No drain
Uğurlu et al. [34] LMWH
Compression stocking
Clinical examination Unclear Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb > 8.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 1 h
Wang et al. [11, 23] LMWH/rivaroxaban
Elastic bandage
Doppler ultrasound Cemented Hb < 6.0 g/dL
Hb > 6.0 + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 2 h
Zekcer et al. [25] LMWH
Compression stocking
Unclear Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL Yes Unclear
Aggarwal et al. [39] Aspirin Clinical examination Cemented Hb > 8.0 g/dL + symptoms Yes Clamped for 1 h
Chen et al. [29, 53] LMWH
Calf pumps
Clinical examination
Doppler ultrasound
Chest CT
Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Unclear
Drosos et al. [38] LMWH
Compression stocking
Clinical examination
Doppler ultrasound
Hybrid Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms Yes No clamp
Keyhani et al. [42] LMWH Doppler ultrasound Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL Yes Clamped for 2 h
May et al. [37] LMWH
Sequential compression
Clinical examination Unclear Hb < 7.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes No drain
Pinsornsak et al. [37] Ankle pumping exercise
Early ambulation
Clinical examination Cemented Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms Yes Clamped for 3 h
Tzatzairis et al. [40] LMWH
Compression stocking
Doppler ultrasound
Clinical examination
Chest CT
Cemented Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms No Clamped for 1 h
Aguilera et al. [43] LMWH Clinical examination Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 9.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 1 h
Digas et al. [44] Tinzaparin Clinical examination Cemented Hb < 8.5 g/dL
Hb < 9.5 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 3 h
Öztaş et al. [45] LMWH Clinical examination Unclear Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 30 min
Gomez-Barrena et al. [46] LMWH Clinical examination
Doppler ultrasound
Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 2 h
Patel et al. [47] LMWH Doppler ultrasound Chest CT Unclear Hb < 8.0 g/dL + symptoms Yes Yes
Sarzaeem et al. [48] Unclear Unclear Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 1 h
Soni et al. [49] LMWH
Ankle pumping exercise
Clinical examination Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL Yes Clamped for 1 h
Seo et al. [50] Unclear Unclear Cemented Hb < 8.0 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes No drain
Maniar et al. [51] LMWH
Ankle pumping exercise
Compression stocking
Clinical examination
Doppler ultrasound
Cemented Hb < 8.5 g/dL
Hb < 10.0 g/dL + symptoms
Yes Clamped for 2 h
  1. Hb hemoglobin, LMWH low-molecular-weight heparin