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Table 1 A complete overview of the results regarding the starting points of the freehand and the AR PAO of the four osteotomies and the retroacetabular angle for both the PAO and the non-PAO surgeon

From: Augmented reality-guided periacetabular osteotomy—proof of concept

Osteotomies (PAO surgeon) Freehand PAO [range (min., max.); ± SD]
Mean distance
Augmented reality PAO [range (min., max.); ± SD]
Mean distance
p value
Supraacetabular (saOT) 1.2 mm [0.37, 2.74; ± 0.77] 1.5 mm [0.08, 3.22; ± 1.01] 0.424
Pubis (pOT) 2.1 mm [0.61, 4.04; ± 1.10] 3.5 mm [0.42, 6.51; ± 2.29] 0.067
Ischium (iOT) 2.4 mm [0.34, 12.6; ± 3.12] 2.7 mm [0.7, 7; ± 1.67] 0.762
Retroacetabular (raOT) 2.0 mm [0, 6.4; ± 1.65] 1.8 mm [0, 4.9; ± 1.58] 0.688
Osteotomies (non-PAO surgeon) Freehand PAO [range (min., max.); ± SD]
Mean distance
Augmented reality PAO [range (min., max.); ± SD]
Mean distance
p value
Supraacetabular (saOT) 2.4 mm [0.53, 4.74; ± 1.32] 1.5 mm [0.00, 3.77; ± 1.56] 0.523
Pubis (pOT) 6.1 mm [2.97, 12.02; ± 2.73] 4.5 mm [1.40, 15.05; ± 3.64] 0.544
Ischium (iOT) 3.2 mm [0.10, 10.25; ± 2.95] 1.3 mm [0.00, 5.36; ± 1.58] 0.030
Retroacetabular (raOT) 2.6 mm [0.51, 5.02; ± 1.48] 1.8 mm [0, 7.18; ± 1.92] 0.812
Angle (PAO surgeon) Freehand PAO [range (min., max.); ± SD] Augmented reality PAO [range (min., max.); ± SD] p value
 Retroacetabular angle 11.7° [7.53, 20.55; ± 3.52] 7.8° [4.21, 14.11; ± 2.67] 0.0027
Angle (non-PAO surgeon) Freehand PAO [range (min., max.); ± SD] Augmented reality PAO [range (min., max.); ± SD] p value
 Retroacetabular angle 8.87° [3.03, 15.75; ± 3.74] 7.23° [2.86, 13.89; ± 3.16] 0.554