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Table 2 Classification and prognostic assessment system of avascular necrosis

From: The clinical and radiographic characteristics of avascular necrosis after pediatric femoral neck fracture: a systematic review and retrospective study of 115 patients

Types The evaluation index
Ratliff’s classification of avascular necrosis (AVN)
 Type I Diffuse density increases in the femoral head accompanied by complete collapse of the epiphysis
 Type II Partial head involvement with slight accompanying epiphyseal collapse and osteonecrosis
 Type III Areas of avascular necrosis, with the range of necrosis usually limited to between the epiphyseal and fracture lines
Ratliff system of clinical and radiographic assessment
 Good Clinical: no pain, normal or slightly limited hip movement, normal daily activity
Radiographic: normal or mild deformity of the femoral neck
 Fair Clinical: occasional pain, limited hip movement less than 50%, normal daily activity
Radiographic: severe deformation of the femoral neck and mild femoral head necrosis
 Poor Clinical: persistent pain, limited hip movement by more than 50%, and limited daily activity
Radiographic: severe femoral head necrosis, degenerative arthritis, arthrodesis