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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Can posterior stand-alone expandable cages safely restore lumbar lordosis? A minimum 5-year follow-up study

Factor Total
(n = 149)
Stand-alone expandable cage fusion
(n = 69)
Screw-assisted fusion
(n = 80)
P value
Age (years), mean (SD) 63.25 (8.37) 61.78 (8.05) 64.51 (8.50) .15a
Sex (%)     .36b
Male 38 (25.5) M: 19 (27.54) M: 19 (23.75)
Female 111 (74.5) F: 50 (72.46) F: 61 (76.25)
Symptom duration (months), mean (SD) 9.52 (10.40) 10.86 (12.74) 8.36 (7.75) .14a
Follow-up duration (months), mean (SD) 72.91 (17.53) 75.23 (14.23) 70.91 (11.62) .10a
ASA-PS grade, %, mean (SD)     .82b
1 13 (8.72) 4 (10.14) 6 (75)
2 144 (87.92) 67 (86.96) 77 (88.75)
3 5 (3.36) 69 (2.9) 1 (3.75)
No. of involved levels, %, mean (SD)     .45b
2 141 (94.63) 66 (95.65) 75 (93.75)
3 8 (5.37) 3 (4.35) 5 (6.25)
Operative time/level, min, mean (SD) 70.80 (17.01) 58.48 (11.10) 81.43 (13.75) .00028a*
Hospital stay, days, mean (SD) 11.96 (2.85) 14.10 (1.97) 10.12 (2.10) .00001a*
  1. aIndependent Student’s t test
  2. b χ2 test
  3. *P < .05
  4. ASA-PS American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, F female, M male, No. number, SD standard deviation