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Table 3 Foot joint motion of three planes during simulated gait with a comparison with previous results

From: In vitro study of foot bone kinematics via a custom-made cadaveric gait simulator

Anatomical joint rotation angel (°) Data source Sagittal plane average ROM ± SD Coronal plane average ROM ± SD Transverse plane average ROM ± SD
Nav-Medcunif Simulated results 7.4 ± 3.8 6.6 ± 2.0 5.4 ± 2.6
Lundgren et al. [4] 11.5 ± 1.8 10.4 ± 6.3 6.2 ± 4.2
Whittaker et al. [21] 12.2 ± 2.2 9.4 ± 2.4 5.8 ± 2.8
Medcunif-Met1 Simulated results 4.0 ± 1.5 6.6 ± 3.4 4.8 ± 2.3
Lundgren et al. [4] 5.3 ± 2.0 5.4 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 1.1
Whittaker et al. [21] 5.6 ± 2.3 8.5 ± 2.5 5.5 ± 2.1
Calc-Cub Simulated results 6.7 ± 4.0 9.9 ± 4.7 7.5 ± 3.8
Lundgren et al. [4] 9.7 ± 5.2 11.3 ± 3.9 8.1 ± 2.0
Whittaker et al. [21] 8.8 ± 1.9 8.6 ± 0.5 7.5 ± 1.8
Cub-Nav Simulated results 4.7 ± 1.8 6.1 ± 1.8 6.9 ± 0.7
Lundgren et al. [4] 7.2 ± 2.4 8.8 ± 4.4 8.9 ± 4.3
Whittaker et al. [21] 18.7 ± 9.4 4.9 ± 3.0 20.1 ± 11.1
Cub-Met5 Simulated results 9.1 ± 3.6 7.2 ± 2.5 6.8 ± 2.3
Lundgren et al. [4] 13.3 ± 1.4 10.4 ± 3.7 9.8 ± 2.1
Whittaker et al. [21] 12.3 ± 5.7 11.9 ± 1.3 9.1 ± 5.9
Calc-Tibia Simulated results 27.1 ± 1.8 7.0 ± 1.6 8.2 ± 3.0
Lundgren et al. [4]
Whittaker et al. [21]
17.0 ± 2.1
23.6 ± 7.0
11.3 ± 3.5
9.2 ± 3.0
7.3 ± 2.4
10.7 ± 3.6
  1. Nav navicular, Medcunf medial cuneiform, Met1 the first metatarsal, Calc calcaneus, Cub cuboid, Met5 the fifth metatarsal