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Table 1 Material properties used in the finite-element model

From: Influence of cement-augmented pedicle screw instrumentation in an osteoporotic lumbosacral spine over the adjacent segments: a 3D finite element study

Component/materialsYoung’s modulus E (MPa)Poisson’s ratio
Cortical bone (osteoporosis)8040(67% of normal)0.3
Cancellous bone (osteoporosis)34(34% of normal)0.2
Posterior element35000.25
Cartilage500.3
Endplate10000.3
Annulus fibrosus4.20.45
Nucleus pulposus10.499
Ligament
 Anterior longitudinal200.3
 Posterior longitudinal200.3
 Transverse590.3
 Ligamentum flavum19.50.3
 Interspinous120.3
 Supraspinous150.3
Spinal instrumentation (titanium alloy)1100000.3
Spinal cage36000.3
Bone cement30000.4