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Table 2 Univariate analysis of risk factors of survival using Cox regression

From: Serum albumin level predicts survival after surgical treatment of metastatic femur fractures: a retrospective study

VariableHazard ratio95% CIP valueReference/remarks
Age of surgery1.0080.992–1.0240.333For every year increase in age
ASA status (2:3)1.5061.004–2.2570.480ASA 3 against ASA 2
CCI (0:≥1)1.2410.822–1.8730.305No comorbidities against CCI ≥ 1
Albumin1.1001.062–1.139< 0.001For every 1 g/L decrease
Haemoglobin (Hb)1.1591.028–1.3070.016For every 1 g/dL decrease
Site of primary tumour   Lung as reference
Breast0.3940.223–0.6970.001 
Prostate0.4260.192–0.9450.036 
Renal0.7580.356–1.6150.473 
Others1.1280.667–1.9070.653 
Presence of visceral metastases (yes:no)1.6751.110–2.5350.014Visceral metastasis present against absent
Presence of spinal metastases (yes:no)1.0710.678–1.6890.769Spinal metastasis present against absent
Time from diagnosis of cancer to incidence of pathological fracture0.9950.992–0.9990.016For every month between diagnosis of cancer to fracture
Pathology (actual fracture:impending fracture)1.1850.791–1.7740.411Treatment of actual fracture against treatment of impending fracture
Site of fracture/lesion   Shaft/distal femur as reference
Neck of femur0.7220.427–1.2210.224 
Intertrochanteric/subtrochanteric0.8330.511–1.3600.4655 bilateral cases excluded
Type of surgical procedure (bipolar hemiarthroplasty:intramedullary nail)0.8540.521–1.4010.533Bipolar against nail
15 cases excluded (10 plate and screws and 5 bilateral)