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Table 1 Summary characteristics of studies and participants

From: The relationship between serum vitamin D and fracture risk in the elderly: a meta-analysis

NameYearStudy typeTF/HF/NSexAgeCountryPeriodFollow-up (year)Adjustment
van Schoor et al2008Cohort115\0\1311Both≥ 65Netherland1992–19936Age, sex, season, education, BMI, number of chronic, diseases, creatinine level, cognition, smoking, and alcohol use
Chan et al2011Cohort72\24\712Men≥ 65China2001–20034Age, BMI, education, PASE, DQI, smoking status, and alcohol use
Nakamura et al2011Cohort51\0\4250Women≥ 69Japan20096Age, BMI, BMD, medication of osteoporosis and PA
Barbour et al2012Cohort331\84\2614Both≥ 70USA1997–19986.4Age, gender, race, education level, season of blood draw, BMI, current drinking, fracture after age 45 and clinical comorbidity index
Looker et al2013Cohort525\287\4749Both≥ 65USA2000–20047Age, sex, race/ethnicity, and survey
Bleicher et al2013Cohort123\0\1662Men70–79Australia2005–20074.3Age, country of birth, BMI, PA, season of blood draw, previous fracture after age 50 years, calcium and vitamin D supplement, and BMD
Tanaka et al2014Cohort382\42\1470Women63.7 ± 10.7Japan20037.2BMD, age, weight, diabetes mellitus, PTH, eGFR, prior fracture, back pain, bisphosphonates, SERM, active vitamin D
Swanson et al2015Case cohort432\81\1000Men74.6 ± 6.2USA2000–20024.5Age, race, site, season, PA, height, weight, baseline hip BMD,1,25(OH)2D measure, and incident falls in the first year of follow-up
Cauley et al2010Case cohort436\81\1929Men≥ 65USA2000–20025.3Age, race, clinic, season of blood draw, physical activity, weight, and height
Bolland et al2009Cohort385\22\1471WomenMean 74New Zealand1998–20035Treatment allocation (calcium or placebo) and baseline age, body weight, and smoking status
Garnero et al2007Cohort134\0\669WomenMean62.2France1992–199311.2Age, prevalent fracture, and PA
deBoer et al2012Cohort0\137\1621Both≥ 65USA1992–200611Age, sex, clinical site, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity.
Looker et al2008Cohort0\156\1917Both≥ 65USA1988–19946.7Age, sex, femoral neck BMD, BMI, previous fracture, dietary calcium, kilocalories, and weight loss from maximum
et al
2014Cohort0\261\5471Both≥ 66Iceland2002–20065.4Age, sex, body mass index, height, smoking, alcohol intake and season, physical activity
Cummings et al2013Cohort271\133\878Women≥ 65USA1986–19885.9Age and weight
Robinson et al2011Cohort0\242\2249Both≥ 65USA1989–200913Age, race, sex, clinic site, a season, education, smoking status (never smoker, former smoker, or current, smoker), alcohol use (any vs. none), diabetes status (normal, impaired fasting glucose, or diabetes), body mass index, self-reported health status, physical activity level, oral steroid use, estrogen use, thiamine and loop diuretic use, serum cystatin C level, and calcium supplement use
Holvik et al2013Case cohort0\1175\2526Both≥ 65Norway1994–200110.7Age, gender, study center, BMI, and month of blood sample
Buchebner et al2014Cohort349\130\1044Women75Sweden1995–199913.1smoking, bisphosphonate use, and physical activity level
Kauppi et al2013Cohort0\95\3305Both62.9Finland2000–20018.4Gender, age, height, weight, BMI, QU, alcohol consumption, smoking, and PA
Ginsberg et al2018Case cohort0\289\890BothMean78USA1989–20068.4Age, sex, race, season of measurements, site of measurement and BMIeGFR, serum calcium, phosphate and FGF-23
  1. TF total fractures, HF hip fractures, N cases