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Table 4 Detailed results of univariate analysis for variables of interest

From: Socioeconomic factors and lifestyles influencing the incidence of calcaneal fractures, a national population-based survey in China

VariablesCase, n = 54 (%)Control, n = 429,375(%)p
Gender< 0.001
 Male41 (75.9)214,501 (50) 
 Female13 (24.1)214,874 (50) 
Age (year)
 15–4422 (40.7)235,657 (54.9)0.101
 45–6424 (44.4)137,779 (32.1) 
 ≥ 658 (14.8)55,939 (13) 
Region0.728
 Eastern27 (50)193,223 (45) 
 Middle9 (16.7)85,630 (19.9) 
 Western18 (33.3)150,522 (35.1) 
Urbanization0.213
 Rural area17 (31.5)258,563 (60.2) 
 Urban area37 (68.5)170,812 (39.8) 
Ethnicity0.158
 Han53 (98.1)400,874 (93.4) 
 Other1 (1.9)28,501 (6.6) 
BMI0.015
 18.5–23.927 (50)282,433 (65.8) 
 24–27.918 (33.3)102,964 (24) 
 ≥ 286 (11.1)17,730 (4.1) 
 < 18.53 (5.6)26,248 (6.1) 
Education0.038
 Illiterate16 (29.6)74,774 (17.4) 
 Primary school23 (42.6)162,924 (37.9) 
 Junior high school11 (20.4)134,891 (31.4) 
 Senior high school or above4 (7.4)56,786 (13.2) 
Occupation0.032
 Unemployed1 (1.9)32,590 (7.6) 
 Office worker2 (3.7)61,747 (14.4) 
 Manual worker25 (46.3)148,165 (34.5) 
 Farmer19 (35.2)105,960 (24.7) 
 Retired4 (7.4)30,197 (7) 
 Students1 (1.9)34,833 (8.1) 
 Other2 (3.7)15,883 (3.7) 
Meat and product 
 Never or seldom9 (16.7)22,000 (5.1)< 0.001
 Always28 (51.9)216,500 (50.4) 
 Often9 (16.7)130,155 (30.3) 
 Occasionally8 (14.8)60,720 (14.1) 
 Seldom9 (16.7)19,448 (4.5) 
Dairy and product0.944
 Never29 (53.7)210,279 (49.0) 
 Always9 (16.7)69,907 (16.3) 
 Often8 (14.8)76,218 (17.8) 
 Occasionally8 (14.8)72,971 (17) 
Bean product0.099
 Never or seldom7 (13.0)47,925 (11.1) 
 Always13 (24.1)80,682 (18.8) 
 Often16 (29.6)200,433 (46.7) 
 Occasionally18 (33.3)100,335 (23.4) 
Alcohol consumption< 0.001
 No19 (35.2)289,344 (67.4) 
 Yes35 (64.8)140,031 (32.6) 
Cigarette smoking< 0.001
 No24 (44.4)324,652 (75.6) 
 Yes30 (55.6)104,723 (24.4) 
Carbonate beverages0.265
 Never or seldom33 (61.1)310,164 (72.3) 
 Always1 (1.9)4766 (1.1) 
 Often3 (5.6)58,481 (13.6) 
 Occasionally6 (11.1)55,964 (13) 
Coffee0.160
 No53 (98.1)401,055 (93.4) 
 Yes1 (1.9)28,320 (6.6) 
Tea0.093
 Never or seldom23 (42.6)255,980 (59.6) 
 Always18 (33.3)103,425 (24.1) 
 Often8 (14.8)41,056 (9.6) 
 Occasionally5 (9.3)28,914 (6.7) 
Living circumstance0.523
 Single-storey house24 (44.4)170,315 (39.7) 
 House ≤ 7 storey28 (51.9)227,535 (53) 
 House > 7 storey2 (3.7)31,525 (7.3) 
Calcium or vitamin D supplement or both0.025
 No47 (87)404,323 (94.2) 
 Yes7 (13)25,052 (5.8) 
Average sleep time (hours) per day< 0.001
 ≥ 720 (37)280,212 (65.3) 
 < 734 (63)149,163 (34.7) 
Previous history of fracture< 0.001
 No48 (88.9)419,666 (97.7) 
 Yes6 (11.1)9709 (2.3)