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Table 1 Characteristics of 16 studies applying alpha-defensin for meta-analysis

From: Reliability of synovial fluid alpha-defensin and leukocyte esterase in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study, yearCountryParticipants (M/F)Median age (range, years)Study designDetection methodAssay platformCutoff valueGold standard
Bingham et al. 2014USAUAUARELISASynovasure (CD Diagnostics)7.72 mg/LMSIS
Deirmengian et al. 2014-1USA70/7965 (41–89)PELISAHycult Biotech (Uden, the Netherlands)5.2 mg/LMSIS
Deirmengian et al. 2014-2USA44/5166 (41–86)PELISAHycult Biotech (Uden, The Netherlands)4.8 mg/LMSIS
Frangiamore SJ 2016USA53/6363 (51–79)PELISASynovasure (CD Diagnostics)5.2 mg/LMSIS
Kasparek et al. 2016USAUA71 (41–91)RLateral flow testSynovasure (CD Diagnostics)UAMSIS
Suda et al. 2017Germany17/1167.7 (39–88)PLateral flow testSynovasure™ PJI Test (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN)UAMSIS
Bonanzinga et al. 2017Germany66/90UAPImmunoassaySynovasure (CD Diagnostics)UAMSIS
Sigmund et al. 2017Austria22/2865 (20–89)PLateral flow testSynovasureUAMSIS
de Saint Vincent et al. 2018France24/15UA (35–78)PLateral flow testSynovasure™, (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN)UAMSIS
Kelly et al. 2018USA21/1864 (33–88)RImmunoassayCD DiagnosticsUAMSIS
Scholten et al. 2018Netherlands22/1566 (51–81)PLateral flow testSynovasure™, (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN)UACulture
Gehrke et al. 2018Germany77/114UAPLateral flow testSynovasure kitUAMSIS
Sigmund et al. 2018Germany38/3370 (41–85)RLateral flow test/ELISASynovasure kit (Zimmer Biomet)/Synovasure™ (CD Diagnostics)UAMSIS/EBJIS/IDSA
Riccio et al. 2018Italy30/4568.7 (57–79)RLateral flow testSynovasure (CD Diagnostics)UAMSIS
Stone et al. 2018USA78/10565.7 (34–91)PMicroarraySynovasure (CD Diagnostics)UAMSIS
Renz et al. 2018Germany61/10670 (41–94)PLateral flow testSynovasure kit (Zimmer Biomet)UAMSIS
  1. UA unavailable, P prospective study, R for retrospective study, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EBJIS criteria European Bone and Joint Infection Society criteria, IDSA Infectious Diseases Society of America