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Table 3 The studies on pediatric epiphyseal ankle fractures and premature physeal closure (PPC)

From: Cannulated screw and Kirschner fixation for the treatment of medial and lateral malleolar epiphyseal fractures in children: a retrospective study of 36 cases

Study Number of patients (n) Mean age (years) Follow-up (years) PPC (n) Factors associated with PPC Factors do not induce PPC Malformation (n)
Russo et al. [23] 96 12.6 Mean 0.6 40 Mechanism of injury Primary fracture displacement
Associated distal fibular fracture
1
Özgür Çiçekli et al. [9] 24 12.3 Mean 1.1 3 Mechanism of injury   0
Leary et al. [24] 124 12.5 Mean 1.1 15 Mechanism of injury
Primary fracture displacement
  5
Seel et al. [25] 225 12.5 Mean 5.7 12 Associated distal fibular fracture
Good anatomical reduction
Mechanism of injury
Primary fracture displacement
Residual displacement after reduction
Treatment modality
6
Cai et al. [2] 286 11.7 Mean 6.4 42 Associated distal fibular fracture Primary fracture displacement
Residual displacement after reduction
16
D’Angelo et al. [16] 46 11 More than 2 1 Associated distal fibular fracture
Good anatomical reduction
  1
Schurz et al. [26] 195 11.6 Mean 0.2 1 Good anatomical reduction   1