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Table 3 Etiology of hand fractures in individuals aged < 16 during six separate periods from 1950/1955 to 2005–2006 (for the last period also separate in boys and girls). Etiology data was missing in 58% of cases in 1950/1955, 49% in 1960/1965, 41% in 1970/1975, 42% in 1976–1979, 28% in 1993–1994, and 30% in 2005/2006. Data are presented as the proportions (%) of different etiologies among the cases where etiology (fracture related activity) could be determined

From: Hand fracture epidemiology and etiology in children—time trends in Malmö, Sweden, during six decades

Environmental factors All children All children Boys Girls
1950/1955 (%) 1960/1965 (%) 1970/1975 (%) 1976–1979 (%) 1993–1994 (%) 2005–2006 (%) 2005–2006 (%) 2005–2006 (%)
Home accidents 9.9 5.9 8.7 3.2 6.8 1.0 0.5 2.7
Day nursery accidents 0 0 0.4 0.2 1.5 1.4 1.9 0
School accidents 14.8 9.8 7.0 6.2 4.5 10.4 10.7 9.6
Work accidents 3.7 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0
Traffic accidents 21.0 16.3 14.9 14.0 18.8 13.2 13.5 12.3
 Bicycle accidents 18.5 7.8 9.1 8.6 13.9 12.2 12.1 12.3
 Pedestrian hit by vehicle 1.2 4.6 0.4 0.7 0 0 0 0
 Moped, motorcycle 0 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.0 1.4 0
 Car passenger 1.2 0.7 2.9 2.6 0.8 0 0 0
 Other 0 1.3 0.4 0.2 2.3 0 0 0
Playing accidents 12.3 21.6 14.0 13.6 14.7 11.1 9.3 16.4
 Playground 1.2 2.0 1.7 1.1 2.3 2.1 1.4 4.1
 In-lines, skateboard 0 0 0 1.9 1.9 2.4 1.9 4.1
 Sledge, other “snow” 0 0 0.8 1.7 1.1 1.0 1.4 0
 Other play accidents 11.1 19.6 11.6 9.0 9.4 5.6 4.7 8.2
Sport accidents 27.2 34.0 40.1 46.7 39.8 42.4 39.1 52.1
 Ball-game 19.8 26.8 30.2 33.6 26.3 29.9 28.4 34.2
 Ice-hockey, skating 3.7 3.9 5.0 3.6 2.6 2.8 3.3 1.4
 Gymnastics and athletics 0 0 0 1.1 2.6 0 0 0
 Horse accidents 3.7 0.7 2.5 2.8 2.6 1.7 0 6.8
 Wrestling, boxing, etc. 0 0.7 0.4 1.9 3.4 3.5 4.2 1.4
 Skiing 0 0.7 2.1 3.4 1.5 2.1 1.9 2.7
 Other 0 1.3 0 0.4 0.8 2.4 1.4 5.5
Fights 9.9 12.4 13.2 13.5 11.3 20.1 24.7 6.8
Other 1.2 0 1.7 2.6 1.1 0.3 0.5 0