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Table 2 Characteristics of surgically managed Medicare proximal humerus fracture patients by surgical procedure

From: Geographic variation in the treatment of proximal humerus fracture: an update on surgery rates and treatment consensus

  Surgical procedure p
All Hemi ORIF RSA
N 11,833 2644 7792 1397  
Patient demographics
 Male, % 17.6 14.7 18.8 16.7 < 0.001
 Mean age 78.1 78.3 77.9 78.8 < 0.001
 Age group, %      < 0.001
  66–69 16.9 15.0 18.5 11.5  
  70–75 25.4 24.4 25.5 27.4  
  76–79 17.6 20.2 16.9 17.0  
  80–85 24.0 24.5 23.1 27.9  
  86+ 16.0 15.8 16.1 16.2  
 Race, %      0.59
  Asian 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.6  
  Black 2.0 1.6 2.1 2.4  
  Hispanic 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1  
  Other 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.9  
  White 95.1 95.7 95.0 94.8  
 Fully dual eligible1, % 9.3 9.2 9.7 7.2 0.01
 Charlson Comorbidity Index2, %      0.06
  0 28.9 27.6 29.5 28.2  
  1 21.5 22.8 21.3 20.1  
  2 15.0 15.5 14.7 15.6  
  3 21.1 12.5 11.6 14.0  
  4+ 22.5 21.6 22.9 22.1  
 Frailty Risk Index (FRI)      < 0.001
  0 41.5 44.4 40.4 42.2  
  1 26.8 25.9 26.5 30.1  
  2 14.7 14.5 14.8 14.0  
  3+ 17.0 15.2 18.2 13.7  
Shoulder diagnoses in the year prior to index fracture
 Osteoarthritis 23.7 22.6 23.1 29.3 < 0.001
 Rheumatoid arthritis 7.4 6.8 7.4 8.7 0.09
 Rotator cuff arthropathy 6.3 6.3 5.2 11.9 < 0.001
 Avascular necrosis 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.08
Previous year Medicare spending3 $12,157 $11,269 $12,591 $11,417 0.008
Days to surgery2 7.9 8.5 7.0 11.3 < 0.001
  1. Differences across groups assessed by ANOVA for continuous variables and Pearson’s chi-square for categorical data
  2. 1Beneficiary was fully dual-eligible for Medicare and Medicaid during the month of the index fracture
  3. 2Days from index diagnosis date to surgery procedure date
  4. 3Total Part A and B payments made by Medicare for the beneficiary over the period of 365 days prior to their index fracture date