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Table 1 Characteristics of 2011 Medicare proximal humerus fracture patients by treatment group

From: Geographic variation in the treatment of proximal humerus fracture: an update on surgery rates and treatment consensus

  Treatment group p
Total population Surgical management Conservative management
N 77,053 11,833 65,220  
Patient demographics
 Male, % 19.9 17.6 20.3 < 0.001
 Mean age 80.3 78.1 80.7 < 0.001
 Age group, %     < 0.001
  66–69 13.0 16.9 12.3  
  70–75 20.5 25.5 19.6  
  76–79 14.9 17.6 14.4  
  80–85 24.8 24.0 25.0  
  86+ 26.7 16.0 28.6  
 Race, %     < 0.001
  Asian 0.9 0.7 1.0  
  Black 3.1 2.0 3.3  
  Hispanic 1.4 1.0 1.4  
  Other 1.2 1.1 1.2  
  White 93.4 95.1 93.1  
 Fully dual eligible1, % 13.8 9.3 14.6 < 0.001
 Charlson Comorbidity Index2, %     < 0.001
  0 24.4 28.9 23.6  
  1 20.2 21.5 20.0  
  2 15.5 15.0 15.6  
  3 12.4 12.1 12.4  
  4+ 27.5 22.5 28.4  
 Frailty Risk Index (FRI)     < 0.001
  0 34.1 41.4 32.8  
  1 25.9 26.8 25.7  
  2 15.9 14.7 16.1  
  3+ 24.1 17.0 25.4  
Shoulder diagnoses in the year prior to index fracture
 Osteoarthritis 25.4 23.7 25.7 < 0.001
 Rheumatoid arthritis 8.0 7.4 8.1 0.01
 Rotator cuff arthropathy 6.6 6.3 6.6 0.15
 Avascular necrosis 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.04
Previous year Medicare spending3 $15,623 $12,157 $16,252 < 0.001
  1. Differences across groups assessed by the two sample independent t test for continuous variables and Pearson’s chi-square for categorical data
  2. 1Beneficiary was fully dual-eligible for Medicare and Medicaid during the month of the index fracture
  3. 2Charlson Comorbidity Index
  4. 3Total Part A and B payments made by Medicare for the beneficiary over the period of 365 days prior to their index fracture date