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Table 5 Reoperations of the included studies

From: Mid- to long-term results of total disc replacement for lumbar degenerative disc disease: a systematic review

Study

Reoperation rate

Reoperation time

Indication for reoperation

Reoperation surgery

Mean time years

≤ 2 years

> 2 years

Guyer et al. [17]

7/90 (7.8%)

5

2

1 Symptomatic spondylolisthesis

1 Device subsidence with back pain

2 Facet degeneration

2 Early postoperative implant displacement

6 Supplemental fixations

1 Without internal fixation

Zigler and Delamarter [50]

11/161 (6.8%)

6

5

  

Van De Kelft and Verguts [43]

0/45 (0%)

Meir et al. [27]

11/28 (39.3%)

3.8 (1.9–8.3)

7 Implant failure

4 Ongoing disabling pain

2 Supplemental fixation without implant removed

9 Implant removed

Sköld et al. [41]

16/80 (20%)

9 General reoperation

9 Device-related reoperation

2 New operation at new level TDR

3 Posterior lateral fusion

1 Decompression

1 Disc hernia

 

Siepe et al. [39]

29/181 (16.0%)

0.8 (0–4.6)

9 Device- or technique related-complications

4 General surgery-related reoperation

10 Persisting symptoms of low back pain

4 Adjacent segment pathologies

4 General revision surgery

4 Posterior instrumentation

2 Microsurgery decompression

2 Anterior revision with implant replacement

1 Anterior revision with implant removal

2 Posterior fusion and cement augmentation

3 Postoperative discectomy and adjacent level fusion

Tohmeh and Smith [42]

0/64 (0%)

Laugesen et al. [20]

19/57 (33%)

3.5 (0.5–8.8)

  

14 Back pain and or radiculopathy

1 Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis

3 Facet arthrosis

1 Unknown

N/A

Putzier et al. [34]

5/53 (9.4%)

7 Implant fracture

3 Implant subsidence

1 Implant dislocation

1 Persisting pain due to progressive

degeneration

 

David [7]

14/106 (13.2%)

5.0 (0–12)

4

9

 

8 Index fusion procedure

3 Prosthesis replacement

2 Adjacent microdiscectomy

1 Decompression and fusion

Park et al. [29]

0/35 (0%)

Lu et al. [23]

2/32 (6.3%)

4.3 (1.7–7.0)

1

1

1 Unclipping of the UHMWPE insert

2 Retroperitoneal hematoma

Park et al. [31]

5/54 (9.3%)

6.9 (4.5–9.3)

0

5

1 Degenerative spondylolisthesis at adjacent level

1 Degenerative spondylolisthesis at adjacent level and facet arthritis at index level

1 Suspicious instability at index level

2 Facet arthritis at index level

5 PLIF