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Table 5 Reoperations of the included studies

From: Mid- to long-term results of total disc replacement for lumbar degenerative disc disease: a systematic review

Study Reoperation rate Reoperation time Indication for reoperation Reoperation surgery
Mean time years ≤ 2 years > 2 years
Guyer et al. [17] 7/90 (7.8%) 5 2 1 Symptomatic spondylolisthesis
1 Device subsidence with back pain
2 Facet degeneration
2 Early postoperative implant displacement
6 Supplemental fixations
1 Without internal fixation
Zigler and Delamarter [50] 11/161 (6.8%) 6 5   
Van De Kelft and Verguts [43] 0/45 (0%)
Meir et al. [27] 11/28 (39.3%) 3.8 (1.9–8.3) 7 Implant failure
4 Ongoing disabling pain
2 Supplemental fixation without implant removed
9 Implant removed
Sköld et al. [41] 16/80 (20%) 9 General reoperation
9 Device-related reoperation
2 New operation at new level TDR
3 Posterior lateral fusion
1 Decompression
1 Disc hernia
 
Siepe et al. [39] 29/181 (16.0%) 0.8 (0–4.6) 9 Device- or technique related-complications
4 General surgery-related reoperation
10 Persisting symptoms of low back pain
4 Adjacent segment pathologies
4 General revision surgery
4 Posterior instrumentation
2 Microsurgery decompression
2 Anterior revision with implant replacement
1 Anterior revision with implant removal
2 Posterior fusion and cement augmentation
3 Postoperative discectomy and adjacent level fusion
Tohmeh and Smith [42] 0/64 (0%)
Laugesen et al. [20] 19/57 (33%) 3.5 (0.5–8.8)    14 Back pain and or radiculopathy
1 Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis
3 Facet arthrosis
1 Unknown
N/A
Putzier et al. [34] 5/53 (9.4%) 7 Implant fracture
3 Implant subsidence
1 Implant dislocation
1 Persisting pain due to progressive
degeneration
 
David [7] 14/106 (13.2%) 5.0 (0–12) 4 9   8 Index fusion procedure
3 Prosthesis replacement
2 Adjacent microdiscectomy
1 Decompression and fusion
Park et al. [29] 0/35 (0%)
Lu et al. [23] 2/32 (6.3%) 4.3 (1.7–7.0) 1 1 1 Unclipping of the UHMWPE insert
2 Retroperitoneal hematoma
Park et al. [31] 5/54 (9.3%) 6.9 (4.5–9.3) 0 5 1 Degenerative spondylolisthesis at adjacent level
1 Degenerative spondylolisthesis at adjacent level and facet arthritis at index level
1 Suspicious instability at index level
2 Facet arthritis at index level
5 PLIF