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Table 1 Basic data, demographics, and results of questionnaires in the scoliosis group and control group

From: Reliability and validity of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS)

Parameter Scoliosis group
(n = 255)
Scoliosis subgroup for matched-pair analysis
(n = 189)
Controls for matched-pair analysis
(n = 189)
Age (years) 30.0 ± 16.7 33.6 ± 17.0 33.6 ± 17.0
Gender
 Male 38 17 17
 Female 217 172 172
Weight (kg) 63.1 ± 11.6 64.1 ± 11.9 67.7 ± 14.4b
Height (cm) 169.6 ± 9.5 168.7 ± 9.0 169.1 ± 7.1c
BMI (kg/m2) 22.0 ± 4.0 22.6 ± 4.2 23.6 ± 4.7d
Cobb angle (°) 43.5 ± 20.9 47.8 ± 20.3
Academic level
 Secondary school 13 11 2
 Junior high 65 47 18
 Technical college entry qualification 25 21 10
 High school 83 54 67
 University degree 69 56 92
Scoliosis treatmenta
 Physiotherapy 222 160 0
 Brace 182 127 0
 Surgery 84 73 0
SAQ total score (range 14, i.e., best, to 70, i.e., worst), sum score (mean, range 1, i.e., best, to 5, i.e., worst) 37.29 ± 10.72 (2.87 ± 0.85) 38.58 ± 11.15 (2.94 ± 0.88) 19.19 ± 5.06 (1.45 ± 0.50)e
SAQ Appearance (range 10, i.e., best, to 50, i.e., worst), sum score (mean, range 1, i.e., best, to 5, i.e., worst) 23.93 ± 7.59 (2.39 ± 0.76) 25.15 ± 7.83 (2.52 ± 0.78) 12.66 ± 2.49 (1.27 ± 0.25)e
SAQ Expectations (range 4, i.e., best, to 20, i.e., worst), sum score (mean, range 1, i.e., best, to 5, i.e., worst) 13.36 ± 4.86 (3.34 ± 1.21) 13.43 ± 4.87 (3.36 ± 1.22) 6.53 ± 3.43 (1.63 ± 0.86)e
TAPS (range 5, i.e., best, to 1, i.e., worst) 3.21 ± 0.89 3.07 ± 0.91 4.81 ± 0.31e
SRS 22-r score (range 5, i.e., best, to 1, i.e., worst)
 Overall mean 3.76 ± 0.61   
 Function 3.89 ± 0.65   
 Pain 3.90 ± 0.90   
 Self-image 3.46 ± 0.75   
 Mental health 3.77 ± 0.78   
 Satisfaction 3.77 ± 0.98   
Job-related worries (range 1, i.e., best, to 5, i.e., worst) 2.42 ± 1.24   
Social life-related worries (range 1, i.e., best, to 5, i.e., worst) 2.75 ± 1.29   
Overall stress (range 1, i.e., best, to 5, i.e., worst) 2.37 ± 1.12   
VAS (pain) (range 0, i.e., best, to 10, i.e., worst) 4.20 ± 2.61   
PANAS (mood) (range 10, i.e., best, to 50, i.e., worst) 13.94 ± 5.41   
PHQ-9 (range 0, i.e., best, to 27, i.e., worst) 4.95 ± 4.63   
FKS (body dysmorphic disorder) (range 0, i.e., best, to 64, i.e., worst) 12.17 ± 9.57   
BFI-S (neuroticism) (range 1, i.e., best to 7, i.e., worst) 3.71 ± 1.52   
PTQ (negative thinking) (range 0, i.e., best, to 48, i.e., worst) 18.99 ± 12.43   
WHO-5 (well-being) (range 25, i.e., best, to 0, i.e., worst) 13.50 ± 5.75 (n = 133)f   
  1. BMI body mass index, SAQ Spinal Appearance Questionnaire, TAPS Trunk Appearance Perception Scale, SRS Scoliosis Research Society, VAS visual analogue scale, PANAS Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, BFI-S neuroticism subscale of the Big Five Inventory—short, FKS Fragebogen körperdysmorpher Symptome, Questionnaire on Body Dysmorphic Symptoms, PTQ Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, WHO-5 The WHO-5 Well-Being Index
  2. aBinomials included
  3. bDifference in weight is significant (T = − 2.63, df = 376, P < 0.01); effect size is rather small (d = − 0.27)
  4. cDifference in height is not significant (T = − 0.50, df = 374, P = 0.62)
  5. dDifference in BMI is significant (T = − 2.24, df = 374, P = 0.03); effect size is rather small (d = − 0.23)
  6. eDifferences between scoliosis subgroup and controls are significant with P < .01, see the “Discriminate validity” section
  7. fOnly given during at the second time of measurement (retest)