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Table 3 Selection of traumatic small animal models for knee joint contracture

From: A novel rat model of stable posttraumatic joint stiffness of the knee

Year 2004 2009 2013 2014
Author Hildebrand et al. Nesterenko et al. Li et al. Efird et al.
Animal model Rabbit Rabbit Rat Rat
Bony lesion Yes Yes Yes
Hyperextension Yes Yes
Other intervention Incision of cruciate ligaments Cartilage was scraped
Joint immobilization 8 weeks 8 weeks 8 weeks 2 weeks
Fixation type K-wire K-wire Suture Suture
Remobilization 8, 16, and 32 weeks 16 weeks
ROM measurement Yes Yes
Main conclusion New animal model of posttraumatic joint contracture Hyperextension resulted in additional joint contracture