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Table 4 Range of motion in the HAL and control groups

From: Training with Hybrid Assistive Limb for walking function after total knee arthroplasty

Response   HAL group Control group   
Visit Mean ± SD   Mean ± SD   P value
Knee ROM (degree)
 Passive extension Pre − 4.0 ± 8.4 (n = 10) − 6.4 ± 5.0 (n = 11) 0.440  
Week 1 − 5.0 ± 3.3 (n = 10) − 8.6 ± 6.4 (n = 11) 0.117  
Week 2 − 3.0 ± 4.2 (n = 10) − 7.7 ± 5.2 (n = 11) 0.034 *
Week 3 − 2.0 ± 3.5 (n = 10) − 5.9 ± 4.9 (n = 11) 0.051  
Week 4 − 0.5 ± 1.6 (n = 10) -5.5 ± 4.7 (n = 11) 0.006 **
Week 8 − 0.8 ± 2.0 (n = 6) -4.2 ± 3.8 (n = 6) 0.086  
 Active extension Pre − 7.0 ± 5.4 (n = 10) − 6.8 ± 5.6 (n = 11) 0.940  
Week 1 − 10.5 ± 7.6 (n = 10) − 13.2 ± 7.2 (n = 11) 0.416  
Week 2 −5.0 ± 5.3 (n = 10) − 12.3 ± 5.2 (n = 11) 0.005 **
Week 3 − 4.0 ± 3.9 (n = 10) − 7.7 ± 4.1 (n = 11) 0.048 *
Week 4 − 3.5 ± 4.1 (n = 10) -6.4 ± 6.0 (n = 11) 0.220  
Week 8 − 2.5 ± 2.7 (n = 6) -5.8 ± 3.8 (n = 6) 0.110  
 Passive flexion Pre 126.0 ± 20.2 (n = 10) 119.1 ± 18.4 (n = 11)   
Week 1 95.3 ± 16.9 (n = 10) 95.5 ± 7.6 (n = 11)   
Week 2 103.5 ± 11.1 (n = 10) 102.7 ± 8.8 (n = 11)   
Week 3 109.5 ± 9.8 (n = 10) 108.2 ± 9.3 (n = 11)   
Week 4 115.8 ± 9.2 (n = 10) 110.9 ± 10.9 (n = 11)   
Week 8 122.5 ± 11.7 (n = 6) 117.8 ± 11.4 (n = 6)   
 Active flexion Pre 123.0 ± 22.4 (n = 10) 115.0 ± 17.0 (n = 11)   
Week 1 85.5 ± 25.1 (n = 10) 85.0 ± 12.2 (n = 11)   
Week 2 96.0 ± 14.3 (n = 10) 94.1 ± 10.9 (n = 11)   
Week 3 100.0 ± 21.6 (n = 10) 99.5 ± 13.5 (n = 11)   
Week 4 108.0 ± 15.1 (n = 10) 104.1 ± 13.0 (n = 11)   
Week 8 115.8 ± 13.6 (n = 6) 109.2 ± 11.6 (n = 6)   
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01