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Table 3 Walking ability in the HAL and control groups

From: Training with Hybrid Assistive Limb for walking function after total knee arthroplasty

Response   HAL group Control group   
Visit Mean ± SD   Mean ± SD   P value
SWS (m/s) Pre 1.08 ± 0.29 (n = 10) 1.04 ± 0.26 (n = 11) 0.794  
Week 2 0.87 ± 0.19 (n = 10) 0.77 ± 0.27 (n = 11) 0.366  
Week 4 1.20 ± 0.09 (n = 10) 0.99 ± 0.26 (n = 11) 0.030 *
Week 8 1.34 ± 0.11 (n = 6) 1.05 ± 0.23 (n = 6) 0.022 *
MWS (m/s) Pre 1.41 ± 0.33 (n = 10) 1.35 ± 0.21 (n = 11) 0.588  
Week 2 1.25 ± 0.38 (n = 10) 1.01 ± 0.34 (n = 11) 0.137  
Week 4 1.61 ± 0.32 (n = 10) 1.24 ± 0.23 (n = 11) 0.006 **
Week 8 1.63 ± 0.09 (n = 6) 1.35 ± 0.24 (n = 6) 0.027 *
SL at SWS (m) Pre 0.59 ± 0.11 (n = 10) 0.57 ± 0.11 (n = 11) 0.656  
Week 2 0.54 ± 0.05 (n = 10) 0.50 ± 0.09 (n = 11) 0.215  
Week 4 0.63 ± 0.03 (n = 10) 0.53 ± 0.07 (n = 11) 0.002 **
Week 8 0.67 ± 0.03 (n = 6) 0.56 ± 0.08 (n = 6) 0.011 *
SL at MWS (m) Pre 0.67 ± 0.10 (n = 10) 0.62 ± 0.09 (n = 11) 0.274  
Week 2 0.62 ± 0.06 (n = 10) 0.52 ± 0.10 (n = 11) 0.016 *
Week 4 0.70 ± 0.05 (n = 10) 0.58 ± 0.07 (n = 11) 0.001 **
Week 8 0.73 ± 0.03 (n = 6) 0.61 ± 0.07 (n = 6) 0.003 **
Cadence at SWS (m) Pre 108.1 ± 13.7 (n = 10) 109.9 ± 11.1 (n = 11)   
Week 2 96.2 ± 13.7 (n = 10) 91.5 ± 22.9 (n = 11)   
Week 4 115.1 ± 6.9 (n = 10) 111.3 ± 20.7 (n = 11)   
Week 8 119.9 ± 5.3 (n = 6) 113.1 ± 13.4 (n = 6)   
Cadence at MWS (m) Pre 125.4 ± 14.9 (n = 10) 130.7 ± 11.2 (n = 11)   
Week 2 120.0 ± 25.3 (n = 10) 114.0 ± 28.4 (n = 11)   
Week 4 137.7 ± 21.2 (n = 10) 127.8 ± 18.1 (n = 11)   
Week 8 133.9 ± 10.0 (n = 6) 133.4 ± 20.6 (n = 6)   
  1. Abbreviations: SWS, self-selected walking speed; MWS, maximum walking speed; SL, step length
  2. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01