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Table 2 Measurement of anatomical and positional angles

From: The anteroposterior axis of the tibia is adjusted to approximately a right angle to the anterior pelvic plane in the standing position in patients with hip dysplasia similar to normal subjects: a cross-sectional study

  Normal group (n = 48) DDH group (n = 29)
FNA (deg) 17.10 ± 9.16*** 28.60 ± 12.69***
CTA (deg) 7.24 ± 1.89 7.37 ± 2.09
KRA (deg) 1.98 ± 6.86*** 8.88 ± 7.02***
APP-FNA (deg) 10.73 ± 8.21* 16.71 ± 10.59*
APP-CEA (deg) − 0.62 ± 4.24** − 5.21 ± 8.55**
APP-tibia AP axis (deg) 1.65 ± 5.58* − 2.65 ± 7.57*
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation
  2. AP anteroposterior, APP anterior pelvic plane, APP-CEA clinical epicondylar axis relative to the APP, APP-FNA FNA relative to the APP, CTA condylar twist angle, FNA femoral neck anteversion, KRA knee rotation angle
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001