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Table 2 Modified Frankel grading scale

From: Clinical results of multidisciplinary therapy including palliative posterior spinal stabilization surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy for metastatic spinal tumor

Grade Neurological status
A Complete motor and sensory loss
B Preserved sensation only, voluntary motor function absent
C Preserved motor less than fair grade (nonfunctional for any useful purpose)
D1 Preserved motor at lowest functional grade (3 +/5 +) and/or with bowel or bladder dysfunction
D2 Preserved motor at midfunctional grade (3 + to 4 +/5 +) and/or neurologic bowel or bladder dysfunction
D3 Preserved motor at high-function grade (4 + to 5 +) and normal voluntary bowel or bladder function
E Complete motor and sensory function normal (may still have abnormal reflexes)