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Table 4 Studies comparing total ankle arthroplasty to ankle arthrodesis

From: Total ankle arthroplasty versus ankle arthrodesis—a comparison of outcomes over the last decade

Author Year Study design Number of ankles Prosthesis (TAA) or operative technique (AA) Mean/minimum follow-up (years) Outcomes Study conclusions
Braito et al. [20] 2014 Retrospective 141 TAA: HINTEGRA (101) AA: open (40) TAA 4.2 (SD 2.03) AA 3.4 (SD 3.67) Minimum 6 months Gait analysis AOFAS FAOS VAS Radiographic No difference in cadence, stride length, or walking velocity No difference in mean global AOFAS No difference in adjacent joint arthritis
Chopra et al. [21] 2014 Retrospective 36 TAA: Salto (12) AA: NR (12) Control: (12) Minimum 2 years Gait analysis Altered bilateral gait mechanics in AA patients Relatively fully recovered bilateral gait mechanics in TAA patients
Flavin et al. [22] 2013 Prospective 42 TAA: STAR (14) AA: NR (14) Control: (14) Minimum 1 year Gait analysis No evidence of consistently superior gait function in TAA compared to AA
Jastifer et al. [23] 2014 Prospective 77 TAA: STAR (61) AA: open (16) Minimum 1 year VAS Buechel-Pappas score AOFAS Patient satisfaction Functional outcomes TAA with improved Buechel-Pappas scale (P = 0.036) and AOFAS (P = 0.03) over AA TAA with improved walking upstairs (P = 0.013), downstairs (P = 0.012), and uphill (P = 0.016) over AA
Piriou et al. [24] 2008 Retrospective 36 TAA: Salto (12) AA: open (12) Control: (12) Minimum 1 year Gait analysis AA with faster gait (P = 0.03), longer step length (P = 0.015) compared to replacement TAA with more symmetrical timing of gait (P = 0.015) and restored ground reaction force pattern over AA
Rouhani et al. [25] 2012 Retrospective 45 TAA: Salto (11) AA: open (9) Ankle osteoarthritis (15) Control: (10) TAA 22 months (13–47 months) AA 33 months (6–58 months) Gait analysis AOFAS FFI Significant improvements in foot mobility after TAR during 50 months gait Significant impairments remained in patients with AA during 50 months gait
Saltzman et al. [26] 2009 Prospective 672 First phase TAA: STAR (158) AA: NR (66) Second phase TAA: STAR (448) Up to 24 months Complications Buechel-Pappas score Significantly more wound complications (P = 0.011) and major complications (P = 0.045) and secondary surgical intervention in pivotal study TAA group over pivotal study AA group Significantly greater efficacy (P < 0.001) and overall success (P < 0.001) in pivotal STAR over AA The hypothesis of non-inferiority of ankle replacement was met for overall patient success
Saltzman et al. [27] 2010 Retrospective 71 TAA: STAR (42) AA: (29) TAA 3.8 (2.2–4.3) AA 4.8 (2.2–5.9) Complications SF-36 AOS Radiographic Improved outcome in TAA over AA for SF-36 MCS (P = 0.011) and AOS pain scale (P = 0.001)
Schuh et al. [28] 2012 Retrospective 41 TAA: HINTEGRA (20) AA: open (21) TAA 39.0 months (SD 17.0 months) AA 30.0 months (SD 22.0 months) AOFAS UCLA score Satisfaction Functional outcomes No significant differences between the groups concerning activity levels, participation in sports activities, UCLA, and AOFAS score
Singer et al. [29] 2013 Retrospective 44 TAA: (17) AA: (17) Control: (10) TAA 1.27 (SD 0.62) AA 1.60 (SD 0.65) Gait analysis Gait patterns more closely resemble normal gait for TAA cohort over AA cohort
  1. Abbreviations: TAA total ankle arthroplasty, AA ankle arthrodesis, NR not reported, SD standard deviation