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Table 1 In vitro effects of PEMF and SW on MSCs from different origins

From: Mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic target of biophysical stimulation for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders

MSCs origin PEMF ESWT
Bone marrow Increased proliferation [4043] Increased proliferation [63]
Enhanced osteogenic [41, 42, 44, 45] and chondrogenic [51] differentiation Increased migration [63]
Reduced production of inflammatory mediators [27] Enhanced osteogenic differentiation [6163]
Adipose tissue Increased proliferation [52] Enhanced osteogenic [71, 72] and adipogenic [72] differentiation
Enhanced chondrogenic [53] differentiation Increased migratory ability [70]
Tendon tissue Increased expression of tissue specific markers [56] Increased expression of tissue specific markers [68, 69]
Increased production of trophic and anti-inflammatory mediators [56, 57] Increased production of trophic and anti-inflammatory mediators [69]
Umbilical cord Enhanced chondrogenic [54] differentiation
Endothelial tissue Increased proliferation [64]
Enhanced migration and homing to lesion sites [64, 65]