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Table 2 Pre- and postoperative NDI, JOA scores, and JOA scores IR (means ± standard deviation)

From: Clinical and radiological outcomes following hybrid surgery in the treatment of multi-level cervical spondylosis: over a 2-year follow-up

  Preoperative Postoperative follow-up
1 month 3 months 6 months 12 months Last follow-up
NDI (%)a 61.17 ± 3.54 33.61 ± 3.17 30.53 ± 2.91 23.86 ± 2.54 21.08 ± 2.30 18.64 ± 2.73
JOAa 9.39 ± 0.84 12.14 ± 1.36 12.44 ± 1.36 13.47 ± 1.08 14.19 ± 1.19 14.78 ± 1.27
JOA IRb   36.14 40.08 53.61 63.07 70.83
  1. NDI Neck Disability Index, JOA Japanese Orthopaedic Association, IR improvement rate
  2. aData are displayed as means ± standard deviation
  3. bData are displayed as a percentage