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Table 3 The GRADE evidence quality for complications

From: Intramedullary nailing versus plating for distal tibia fractures without articular involvement: a meta-analysis

Complications Number of studies Study design Risk Ratio [95 % CI] P P for heterogeneity Quality
Deep infection 4 [2,10,35,38] RCT 0.79 [0.27, 2.29] 0.67 0.72 Moderatea
4 [9,12,28,29] Retrospective 0.44 [0.14, 1.41] 0.17 0.43 Moderateb
Delayed wound healing and superficial infection 4 [2,10,33,38] RCT 0.41 [0.11, 1.61] 0.20 0.13 Moderatea
14 [12,14-19,21,24-28,31,32] Retrospective 0.34 [0.21, 0.57] <0.0001 0.61 Moderateb
Delayed union 4 [2,10,35,38] RCT 1.46 [0.70, 3.03] 0.31 0.37 Moderatea
8 [9,12,13,17,19,28-30] Retrospective 0.99 [0.62, 1.59] 0.98 0.72 Low
Removal of metal work 3 [2,33,35] RCT 0.89 [0.62, 1.27] 0.51 0.39 Moderatea
6 [9,12,13,17,23,27] Retrospective 0.89 [0.36, 2.17] 0.79 0.08 Low
Secondary procedures 4 [2,33,35,38] RCT 0.92 [0.62, 1.37] 0.69 0.13 Moderatea
6 [9,12,13,17,23,27] Retrospective 0.78 [0.33, 1.80] 0.55 0.02 Low
Malunion 4 [2,10,35,38] RCT 1.52 [0.81, 2.85] 0.20 0.64 Moderatea
  14 [9,11-14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,29,31,32] Retrospective 4.79 [2.86, 8.01] <0.00001 1.00 Moderatec
Knee pain 2 [35,38] RCT 5.39 [0.13, 229.08] 0.38 0.009 Lowa,d
  6 [11,13-15,28,29] Retrospective 4.01 [1.71, 9.40] 0.001 0.14 Moderatec
  1. aTotal number of events is less than 300
  2. bRR < 0.5
  3. cRR > 2
  4. d I 2 > 50 %