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Table 3 Comparison of various bone grafts in several experimental and clinical studies

From: Bone regenerative medicine: classic options, novel strategies, and future directions

Reference Model of defect Graft options Model of study Effects
Emami et al. [50] Radial bone defect Iliac crest autograft and bone marrow plus the autograft Experimental study in15 rabbits Bone marrow plus the autograft caused high tolerance to maximum load and bending stiffness
Keskin et al. [11] Ulnar bone defect Autograft, bovine xenograft, and xenograft-autogenous bone marrow Experimental study in 80 rabbits Xenograft achieved the worst results. Combination of xenograft with autogenous bone marrow led to promising outcome
Pereira-Junior et al. [33] Radial bone defect Cancellous bone autograft vs. granular polyurethanes containing castor oil Experimental study in 20 rabbits Autograft showed higher and faster bone regeneration than castor oil-based polyurethane containing biocompatible and osteointegrative properties
Bigham et al. [3] Radial bone defect Fresh autogenous cortical bone vs. xenogenic bovine DBM Experimental study in 20 rabbits Fast healing without complications with xenogenic bovine DBM similar to autograft, but autograft group was superior to DBM only radiographically
Bigham et al. [51] Radial bone defect Xenogenic bovine DBM vs. xenogenic bovine fetal growth plate Experimental study in 20 rabbits With both grafting groups, healing was faster, despite the fetal growth plate which was radiographically superior to DBM
Shafiei et al. [14] Radial bone defect Fresh cortical autograft vs. fresh cortical allograft Experimental study in 20 rabbits Autograft was radiographically but not biomechanically and histopathologically superior to allograft
Athanasiou et al. [12] Femoral condyle defect Autogenous, allograft-DBM, bovine cancellous bone xenograft and calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate substitutes Experimental study in 90 rabbits The best results obtained with the use of autograft, followed by bovine xenografts, allograft, and ultimately, the other substitutes had similar results
Bansal et al. [4] Tibial plateau fracture Bovine cancellous xenograft Clinical study, 19 patients Obtained promising outcome, reduced operative time and bleeding good effects on bone healing
Putzier et al. [20] Lumbar segmental spondylodesis Autogenous vs. allogenic iliac crest cancellous bone graft Clinical study, 40 patients Both grafts attained equivalent fusion rate without implant complications and accordingly similar clinical outcome
Keles et al. [52] Intraosseous periodontal defect Combined autogenous cortical bone (ACB) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) vs. ACB alone Clinical study, 12 patients Both the two groups resulted in improvement in clinical and radiological characteristics
Thuaksuban et al. [63] Alveolar cleft defect Autogenous bone alone vs. autogenous bone with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) Clinical study, 30 patients Duration of hospital stay, the average operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and post-operative pain were less; recovery was faster in patients receiving DBB with autogenous cancellous bone graft
Faldini et al. [53] Aseptic forearm non-union Bone allograft with plate Clinical study, 14 patients High forearm alignment rate and improved forearm function led to bone healing
Scaglione et al. [6] Long bone non-union Autologous concentrated bone marrow-derived cells combined with dried bone allograft (DBM) Clinical study, 19 patients Complete healing in 15 patients (78.9%)