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Figure 1 | Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research

Figure 1

From: Effects of obesity on bone metabolism

Figure 1

Bone metabolism regulated by adipocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Fat accumulation is closely related to bone formation and resorption. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell. Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocyte/macrophage precursors of hematopoietic stem cells origin. Adipocytes secrete several cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, adiponectin, and leptin which are capable of modulating osteoclastogenesis through RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway.

IL, interleukin; OPG, osteoprotegerin; RANK, receptor activator of nuclear transcription factor κB; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear transcription factor κB ligand; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha;

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