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Table 2 Changes in lumbar intervertebral disc geometric morphology during disc degeneration

From: Biomechanical effects of interbody cage height on adjacent segments in patients with lumbar degeneration: a 3D finite element study

Structure Normal (%) Mild (%) Moderate (%) Severe (%)
Disc heighta 100 80 60 40
Height of osteophytesb 10 20 30
Nucleus pulposus areac 100 75 50 40
  1. aIntervertebral disc height: The L3 vertebrae moved down 20% (mild), 40% (moderate) and 60% (severe) of the original intervertebral height, respectively
  2. bOsteophyte: The height and length of the osteophyte are equal in the sagittal plane. The height and length of the anterior osteophytes were 10% (mild), 20% (moderate) and 30% (severe) of the normal sagittal diameter of L3 and L4, respectively
  3. cThe surface area of nucleus pulposus: Decreased to 75% (mild), 50% (moderate) and 40% (moderate) of the normal value, respectively, and the reduced part was replaced by annulus fibrosus