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Table 3 Comparison of postoperative outcomes by ITM dose

From: The use of intrathecal morphine for acute postoperative pain in lower limb arthroplasty surgery: a survey of practice at an academic hospital

Variable   Overall n = 66 100 mcg ITM n = 29 150 mcg ITM n = 37 p-value
Side effects None 29 (44) 12 (41) 17 (59) 0.92
Pruritus 22 (33) 11 (50) 11 (50)
Nausea & vomiting 5 (8) 2 (40) 3 (60)
Both 10 (15) 4 (40) 6 (60)
PEP Yes 21 (32) 10 (48) 11 (53) 0.68
No 45 (68) 19 (42) 26 (58)
Ephedrine Yes 7 (11) 4 (57) 3 (43) 0.46
No 59 (89) 25 (42) 34 (58)
Rescue analgesia Paracetamol 3 (5) 3 (100) 0 (0) 0.098
Tramadol hydrochloride 21 (32) 11 (52) 10 (48)
Pethidine 15 (23) 5 (33) 10 (67)
Paracetamol & tramadol hydrochloride 6 (9) 4 (45) 2 (33)
Paracetamol & pethidine 2 (3) 1 (50) 1 (50)
None 19 (29) 5 (26) 14 (74)
Pain-free time (min) [median (IQR)] 720 (540–1110) 675 (540–785) 720 (550–1440) 0.31
VAS score median (IQR) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–5) 1 (0–2) 0.01
  1. VAS Visual Analogue Scale, PEP phenylephrine, ITM intrathecal morphine