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Table 2 Generalities and patient baseline of the included studies (please define the abbreviations)

From: Magnetically controlled growing rods in the management of early onset scoliosis: a systematic review

Author, year Journal Design Follow-up (months) Patients (n) Mean age Eligibility criteria
Akbarnia et al. [23] Spine Deformity Prospective 10 14 8.8 1. EOS of any aetiology; 2. clear indication for an operative intervention; 3. Minimum 3 outpatient distractions were done
Burstein et al. [24] J Spine Prospective 31 22 8.8 1. EOS at any aetiology; 2. Cobb’s angle > 40 degree, and/or progression > 5 deg., and/or failed non-operative treatment; 3. FU minimum 2 years
Cheung et al. [25] Lancet Prospective 19 5 11.0 1. Remain growth potential; 2. Treated with MCGR for 24 months
Cheung et al. [26] Neurosurgery Retrospective 73.2 31 10.1 1. Minimum 4-year FU for post-implantation of single and dual MCGR
Cheung et. al. [27] Spine Deformity Prospective 24 10 8.2 1. No prior treatment to spinal deformity;2. At least 2-year FU after primary MCGR insertion
Dahl et al. [28] J Orthop Surg Retrospective 22.8 19 9.7 1. Treated with MCGRs at a single situation; 2. primary surgery
Dannawi et al. [29] Bone Joint J Prospective 15 34 8.0 1. EOS from any cause; 2. Failed non-operative treatment with bracing or observative; 3. Progression of the curvature of > 10 deg. over 6-month period with Cobb angle > 40°; 5. any evidence of infection
Di Silvestre et al. [30] Eur Spine J Retrospective 34.8 17 14.5 1. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; 2. Thoracic curve with minimum preoperative Cobb’s angle 90 deg.; 3. at least 2.5 years FU; 4. Aged between 11 and 17 years old; 5. No preoperative treatment with halo-traction/serial corrective Risser’s plasters
Doany et al. [31] Spine Retrospective 34.3 44 6.7 1. EOS of any aetiology; 2. age less than 10 years at index surgery; 3. Major curve greater than or equal to 30 deg.; 4. No history of spine surgery before growing rod insertion; 5. At least 12-month postoperative follow-up
Heydar et al. [32] Spine Prospective 9 18 7.3 1. EOS of any aetiology; 2. Cobb's angle equals or greater than 40 deg.; 3. Rising Cobb’s angle by 10 deg. 4. T1–T12 < 22 cm; 5. Younger 10 years; 6. Accepted implantation for min. period of 9 months; 7. Consent from parents; 8. MAGEC implantation as primary surgery
Hickey et al. [33] Eur Spine J Prospective 23 8 4.5 1. Inserted magnetic controlled growth rods (MAGEC) for management of EOS with minimum of 23 months follow-up
Keskinen et al. [34] Eur Spine J Retrospective 12 50 7.0 1. Diagnosis of EOS; 2. Surgery before age of 11 years; 3. Minimum 30° major curve by Cobb angle; 4. Thoracic spinal height < 22 cm; 5. At least 1-year postoperative follow-up
Kwan et al. [19] Spine Retrospective 37 30 7.2 1. Progressive spinal deformity
La Rosa et al. [35] J Pediatr Orthop Prospective 27 10 7.2 1. EOS was diagnosed before age of 5; 2. Patients was initially managed with cast and braces until value of curvature > 40 deg
Lebon et al. [36] Eur Spine J Retrospective 18.4 30 9.1 1. Failed conservative treatment/revision of GR; 2 follow-ups longer than 12 months
Pepke et al. [37] Der Orthopäede Retrospective 24 21 9.2 1. Patients were under 10 years old; 2. scoliotic curve > 40°; 3. primary spine surgery; 4. any congenital, syndromic/neuromuscular scoliosis
Ridderbusch et al. [38] J Paed Orthop Retrospective 21.1 24 8.9 1. EOS at any aetiology; 2. Major curve > 40 Deg. 3. at least 12moths FU; 4. at least 3 lengthening steps
Skov et al. [7] Int Orthop Prospective 67.2 38 10.2 1. Progressive EOS of all aetiology are treated with Cody Bünger concept; 2. Minimum 2 years FU; 3. any salvage/complex spine procedure with/without Cody Bünger concept; 4. longer than 2 years EOS treatment
Studer et al. [39] J Children orthop Prospective 25 30 9.4 1. First 30 patients underwent MCGR treatment
Teoh et al. [40] Spine J Retrospective 48 8 8.2 1. Minimum 44 months of FU
Thompson et al. [41] Bone Joint J Prospective 22.4 19 9.1 1. Diagnosed with progressive thoracic/thoracolumbar scoliosis
Wijdicks et al. [14] Spine Deformity Retrospective 36 18 9.9 1. Skeletal immaturity; 2. Progressive scoliosis; 3. Major curve > 45 deg
Yoon et al. [42] Spine Prospective 30 6 7.5 1. EOS secondary to neuromuscular disease