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Table 3 GRADE evidence profile of PFN versus DHS for patients with trochanteric fracture included in randomized clinical trials.

From: Comparative effectiveness research on proximal femoral nail versus dynamic hip screw in patients with trochanteric fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

Outcome Number of trials (≤ 12 total) No. of patients (N ≤ 1889 total) Follow-up, months (min; max) Serious risk of bias? Inconsistency: I2 (%) Serious indirectness? Serious imprecision? Serious risk of reporting bias? Effect size (95%CI) Quality of the evidence
Operative time 11 1667 Intraoperation Yes Yes(98%) No Yes No − 9.49(− 18.74 to 0.25) Very low
Blood loss 8 781 Intraoperation Yes Yes (95%) No No No − 158.20 (− 203.05 to − 113.34) Low
Fluoroscopy time 7 1371 Intraoperation Yes Yes (99%) No Yes No 0.43 (0.18 to 0.68) Low
Closed reduction 5 1042 Post-operation Yes No (52%) No No No 1.02 (0.99 to 1.05) Moderate
Non-Union 5 1091 12;12 Yes No (0%) No No No 0.93(0.44 to 1.96) Moderate
Implant Failure 10 1749 4;24 Yes No (32%) No No No 0.78 (0.35 to 1.75)) Moderate
Revision 4 886 12;12 Yes No (44%) No No No 0.84 (0.22 to 3.15) Moderate