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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Therapeutic effect of autologous bone grafting with adjuvant bone morphogenetic protein on long bone nonunion: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Country Study design Intervention Sample size (n) Age (year) Women [n (%)] Nonunion Follow-up time (months) Outcome
Observation/control Time (months) Site
Takemoto [10] 2014 USA Cohort study ABG + rhBMP-2 68
50
47.4
43.4
28 (41%)
15 (30%)
NR (A)(B)(C)
(D)(E)(F)
12
Von Ruden(a)
[11]
2016 Germany Cohort study ABG + (rhBMP-2 or rhBMP-7) 24
25
43
45
2 (8%)
9 (36%)
11 (C) 6–54
VonRuden(b)
[12]
2016 Germany Cohort study ABG + (rhBMP-2 or rhBMP-7) 28
45
50
49
13 (46%)
14 (31%)
11
13
(E) 6–52
Hackl [13] 2017 Germany Cohort study ABG + rhBMP-7 62
50
  24 (39%)
13 (26%)
  (A)(B)(D) > 12
(a)Humerus      13
9
49
51
6 (46%)
3 (33%)
14.8    
(b)Femur      28
13
55.2
42.4
11 (39%)
2 (15%)
11.7    
(c)Tibia      21
28
51.6
42.3
7 (33%)
8 (29%)
10.3    
Liu [14] 2019 China Cohort study ABG + rhBMP-2 22
20
42.25 41.57 9 (41%)
7 (35%)
9.37
9.24
(A)(B)(C)
(D)
6–24
  1. ABG autologous bone graft, rhBMP recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, (A) tibia, (B) femur, (C) forearm, (D) humerus, (E) clavicle, (F) others, healing rate, healing time, excellent and good rate of function, pain