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Table 2 Comparison of outcomes between the ITM and control group

From: Intrathecal morphine in combination with bupivacaine as pre-emptive analgesia in posterior lumbar fusion surgery: a retrospective cohort study

  Raw values (median, IQR) Weighted values (median, IQR) Weighted average treatment effect
Control group ITM Control group ITM Difference in means (95% CI) p value
Total IV morphine equivalent administered intraoperatively and in recovery (mg) 18 (14–21) 0 (0–4) 17 (14–21) 0 (0–5) 15.6 (12.9–18.0) < 0.001
Total 48-h morphine equivalent (mg) 88 (58–130) 20 (2.5–40) 80 (55–130) 20 (10–40) 75.3 (49.7–90.5) < 0.001
Length of stay (days) 4 (3–5) 3 (2–4) 4 (3–5) 3 (2–4) 1.3 (0.5–2.1) 0.006
VAS pain recovery (0–10) 6 (0–8) 0 (0–4) 6 (0–8) 0 (0–4) 2.8 (1.3–4.7) 0.001
Worst VAS pain day 2 (0–10) 7 (5–8) 6 (4–8) 7 (5–8) 6 (4–8) 0.9 (-0.4–2.0) 0.19
  1. The weighted average treatment effect was calculated based on propensity score weighting