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Table 1 Overview of the included studies

From: Peri-articular administration of tranexamic acid is an alternative route in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Title Year Region Age Gender BMI Study design
Pinsornsak P Peri-articular tranexamic acid injection in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial 2016 Thailand PAI 67.63
IV 69.97
PAI 5M/25F
IV 7M/23F
PAI 27.96
IV 26.52
A randomized controlled trial
Mao Z A comparative, retrospective study of peri-articular and intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid for the management of postoperative blood loss after total knee arthroplasty 2016 China PAI 68.5
IA 69.7
Non-TXA 69.6
PAI 8M/41F
IA 5M/31F
Non-TXA 10M/32F
PAI 25.9
IA 25.6
Non-TXA 26.6
A retrospective study
Yozawa S Periarticular injection of tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and the necessity for allogeneic transfusion after total knee arthroplasty using autologous transfusion: a retrospective observational study 2017 Japan PAI 75.1
Non-TXA 73.0
PAI 13M/31F
Non-TXA 10M/34F
PAI 26.4
Non-TXA 26.0
A retrospective study
Zhang S Multi-route applications of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial 2019 China PAI 66
IA 68.5
PAI + IA 66
Non-TXA 68
PAI 16M/37F
IA 14M/38F
PAI + IA 11M/39F
Non-TXA 12M/43F
PAI 25.98
IA 25.32
PAI + IA 25.52
Non-TXA 25.28
A randomized controlled trial
Besiris GT Topical use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty: a comparative study 2020 Greece PAI 72.08
IA 72.27
NR NR A observational prospective comparative study
Lin YK Significantly reducing blood loss via a peri-articular injection of tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty: a retrospective study 2021 China 70.46 18M/32F 27.65 A retrospective study
Sivasubramanian H Local infiltration of analgesia and tranexamic acid is safe and efficacious in reducing blood loss and comparable to intra-articular tranexamic acid in total knee replacements 2021 Singapore PAI 65.5
IA 66.8
PAI 9M/12F
IA 20M/22F
PAI 20.6
IA 21.5
A retrospective study
Pinsornsak P Efficacy and systemic absorption of peri-articular versus intra-articular administration of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized controlled trial 2021 Thailand PAI 65.6
IA 68.4
Non-TXA 68.6
PAI 2M/34F
IA 3M/33F
Non-TXA 4M/32F
PAI 27.4
IA 26.9
Non-TXA 25.6
A prospective randomized controlled trial
Peng HM Multimodal Peri-articular Injection with Tranexamic Acid can reduce postoperative blood loss versus intravenous tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial 2021 China PAI 68.65
IV 68.13
PAI 7M/39F
IV 6M/41F
PAI 26.81
IV 27.06
A randomized controlled trial
Kim KI Tranexamic acid in a periarticular multimodal cocktail injection for blood management in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized study 2021 Korea IV 72.08
PAI 72.58
PAI + IV 72.35
IV 13M/67F
PA 13M/67F
PAI + IV 11M/69F
IV 26.36
PAI 26.54
PAI + IV 26.05
A prospective randomized study
  1. PAI, periarticular injection; IV, intravenous; IA, intra-articular injection; TXA, tranexamic acid; M, male; F, female; NR, not report