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Table 1 Revised Japanese orthopaedic association scoring system

From: The influence of ossification morphology on surgery outcomes in patients with thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum (TOLF)

Motor function: lower extremity
Unable to stand up and walk by any means 0
Able to stand up but unable to walk 0.5
Unable to walk without a cane or other support on a level 1
Able to walk without support but with a clumsy gait 1.5
Walks independently on a level but needs support on stairs 2
Able to walk independently when going upstairs, but needs support when going downstairs 2.5
Capable of fast but clumsy walking 3
Normal 4
Sensory function: lower extremity
Complete loss of touch and pain sensation 0
50% or less normal sensation and/or severe pain or numbness 0.5
More than 60% normal sensation and/or moderate pain or numbness 1
Subjective numbness of slight degree without any objective sensory deficit 1.5
Normal 2
Sensory function: trunk
Complete loss of touch and pain sensation 0
50% or less normal sensation and/or severe pain or numbness 0.5
More than 60% normal sensation and/or moderate pain or numbness 1
Subjective numbness of slight degree without any objective sensory deficit 1.5
Normal 2
Bladder function
Urinary retention and/or incontinence 0
Sense of retention and/or dribbling and/or thin stream and/or incomplete continence 1
Urinary retardation and/or pollakiuria 2
Normal 3
Total score 11