Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of characteristics of included studies

From: The global prevalence of osteoporosis in the world: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis

Row number Author Year Continent Country Diagnosis tool Location of diagnosis Cut-off Study population m w Age OP
1 Hyun Koo Uoon [22] 2001 Asia Tae-An Korea BUA by QUS2 Calcaneus T ≤  − 2.5 298 0 298 35–65 9
2 Sireen Shilbayeh [23] 2003 Asia Jordan BMD by DXA Femoral neck, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 400 0 400 19–89 119
3 X.-P. WU [4] 2003 Asia China SOS Tibial T ≤  − 2.5 1596 0 1596 46.5 173
4 Vu Thi Thu Hien [16] 2005 Asia Vietnam SOS Calcaneus T ≤  − 3.8 2232 0 2232 ≥ 20 343
5 Sarath Lekamwasam [24] 2006 Asia Sri Lanka BMD by DXA Spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2 1642 0 1642 ≥ 50 736
6 G. Chhibber [25] 2006 Asia Dehli and Haryana (INDIA) BMD by DXA Forearm, hip T ≤  − 2.5 430 0 430 60–80 265
7 Mahmoud I. El-Desouki [21] 2007 Asia Saudi Arabia BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 429 429 0 30–90 101
8 Nan-Ping Yang [19] 2006 Asia Taiwan BMD by DXA Lumbar, hip T ≤  − 2.5 33,633 17,583 16,050 ≥ 50 2109
9 Abdulbari Bener [26] 2007 Asia Qatar BMD by DXA Spine, femur T ≤  − 2.5 821 0 821 20–70 42
10 Didem Arslantas [27] 2008 Asia Turkey BMD by DXA Hip T ≤  − 1.8 1437 571 866 40–89 216
11 Montchai Chumnumnawin [28] 2008 Asia Bangkok-Thaiwan (Priests) BMD by DXA Hip T ≤  − 2.5 659 659 0 ≥ 20 33
12 S. Miura [29] 2008 Asia Philippines SOS Calcaneus T ≤  − 1.79 339 0 339 40–89 67
13 P. Shokrollahi [30] 2008 Asia IRAN, SHIRAZ BMD by DXA BMD   75 0 75 ≥ 55 58
14 M. Fatima [31] 2009 Asia Pakistan BMD by SOS Calcaneus T ≤  − 2.5 334 0 334 20–60 43
15 Sarath Lekamwasam [32] 2009 Asia Sri Lanka BMD by DXA Middle phalanx of the middle finger of the non-dominant hand T ≤  − 2.5 1147 1147 0 50–84 66
16 Aranjan Lionel Karunanayake [33] 2010 Asia Sri Lanka BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, hip T ≤  − 2.5 700 279 421 35–64 101
17 A. Neema [34] 2010 Asia Wardha, India BMD by SOS Calcaneus T ≤  − 1.8 1122 0 1122 40–60 173
18 Shafaq Zahoor [35] 2010 Asia Pakistan BMD by DXA Heel T ≤  − 2.5 240 0 240 ≥ 49 56
19 Neelam Aggarwal [36] 2011 Asia Chandigarh, India BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total spine T ≤  − 2.5 200 0 200 ≥ 45 56
20 Zhifeng Sheng [37] 2011 Asia Chine BMD by DXA Lumbarspine, left femoral T ≤  − 2.5 954 0 954 50–82 376
21 Yong Jun Choi [38] 2012 Asia Korea BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, total femur, femur neck T ≤  − 2.5 4946 2095 2851 ≥ 50 1169
22 Kyae Hyung Kim [39] 2012 Asia Korea BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 2870 0 2870 ≥ 50 1122
23 Zhang Mengmeng [40] 2012 Asia Changchun, China BMD by DXA Distal, forearm T 16,019 7286 8733 20–89 4313
24 Zahra Pourhashem [41] 2012 Asia Amirkola, Iran BMD by DXA Femur, spine, femoral, lumbar T ≤  − 2.5 193 105 88 60–88 62
25 S. Tuzun [42] 2012 Asia Turkey BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, proximal femur (neck, total), femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 1965 944 1021 ≥ 50 202
26 Neeraj Kumar Agrawal [43] 2013 Asia India BMD by DXA Right femur, neck, trochanter, total hip T ≤  − 2.5 200 200 0 ≥ 50 17
27 Maj Tripti Agrawal [44] 2013 Asia India BMD by QUS Calcaneus (heel) T ≤  − 2.5 158 0 158 35–64 21
28 Maninder Kaur [45] 2013 Asia North, India BMD by DXA Lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 250 0 250 45–80 66
29 Jongseok Lee [46] 2013 Asia Korea BMD by DXA Femoral neck, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 17,205 7837 9368 10_89 4077
30 Yaşar Keskin [47] 2014 Asia Turkey BMD by MetriScan device Middle phalanges of the second, third, and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand T ≤  − 2.5 620 122 498 40–89 88
31 Kyung-Shik Lee [48] 2014 Asia Korea BMD by DXA Total hip, femoral neck, total lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 11,142 5355 5787 ≥ 50 2557
32 Eun Jung Park [49] 2014   Korea BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter, total hip T ≤  − 2.5 7425 3414 4011 ≥ 50 1773
33 Edith Ming Chu Lau [50] 2015 Asia China BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 12,401 0 12,401 50–89 2798
34 Cathy Nga Yan Lee [13] 2015 Asia Hong Kong BMD by DXA Heel T ≤  − 2.5 80 22 58 41.6 3
35 Zahra Mohammadi [51] 2015 Asia Kurdistan, Iran BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 306 403 629 ≥ 50 123
36 Marzieh Saei Ghare Naz [52] 2015 Asia Urmia, Iran BMD by DXA Femoral neck, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 292 0 292 ≥ 50 152
37 Yan-Jiao Wang [53] 2015 Asia China BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 316 164 152 ≥ 65 78
38 Khurshid A. Bhat [54] 2018 Asia INDIA BMD by DXA Lumbar, total hip, femur neck T ≤  − 2.5 241 241 0 ≥ 60 46
39 Yi-Chien Lu [55] 2016 Asia Taiwan, China BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck, both T_usa ≤  − 2.5 3740 2028 1712 ≥ 50 886
T_Asia ≤  − 2.5 271
40 Sung Bae Park [15] 2016 Asia Korea BMD by DXA Spine, hip, or wrist T ≤  − 2.5 51,169,141 All 2,018,236
41 Sung Bae Park [15] 2016 Asia Korea BMD by DXA Spine, hip, or wrist T ≤  − 2.5 50,908,646 All 2,018,437
42 Dana Hyassat [56] 2017 Asia Amman, Jordan BMD by DXA Total, lumbar spine, left femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 1079 0 1079 45–84 405
43 Yu-Jun Kwon [57] 2017 Asia Korea BMD Heel T ≤  − 2.5 595 157 438 51–94 393
44 Gul Pinar [7] 2017 Asia Turkey BMD by DXA Femoral neck, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 1792 0 1792 18–49 72
45 Limin Tian [58] 2017 Asia Northwestern of China BMD by DXA Distal one-third radius of the forearm T ≤  − 2.5 6564 3205 3359 ≥ 40 583
46 Muhammad Farhan Abbas [59] 2018 Asia Pakistan BMD by X-rays Questionnaire T ≤  − 2.5 360 0 360 ≥ 15 152
47 Parvin Cheraghi [60] 2018 Asia Hamedan, Iran BMD by DXA   T ≤  − 2.5 1779 1077 702 ≥ 60 142
48 Nidhi S. Kadam [61] 2018 Asia Pune City, India BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip T ≤  − 2.5 421 193 228 40–75 69
49 Neelam Kaushal [18] 2018 Asia INDIA BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femur neck, total femur T ≤  − 2.5 524 306 216 20–85 36
50 Chi‐Hua Ko [20] 2018 Asia Taiwan BMD by DXA Hip (total), lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 3734 3734 0 ≥ 50 362
51 P. Modagan [17] 2018 Asia INDIA BMD by DXA Proximal femur (total hip, femoral neck, shaft, Ward’s triangle, trochanter), anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 773 380 393 30–90 191
52 Nayer Seyfizadeh [62] 2016 Asia Iran BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 990    55–92 307
53 Jung Eun Yoo [63] 2018 Asia Korea BMD by DXA Femoral neck, total femur, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 6104 6104 0 ≥ 30 305
54 Abdulaziz Ahmed Abdulaziz [64] 2019 Asia SAUDI ARABIA BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, neck femur T ≤  − 2.5 131 131   ≥ 60 34
55 Zaheer Ahmed Mohammed [64] 2019 Asia MAJMAAH, Saudi BMD by DXA Hip, spine (online questionnaire) T ≤  − 2.5 593 110 483 ≥ 20 47
56 K. Padmanabhan [65] 2019 Asia Chennai, India BMD by DXA Calcaneus heel T ≤  − 2.5 270 0 270 30–70 43
57 Hasanga Rathnayake [66] 2019 Asia Sri Lanka BMD by DXA Spine, femoral neck, total hip T ≤  − 2.5 176 0 355 ≥ 50 65
58 Shriraj Shrestha [67] 2019 Asia Hospital in Nepal BUA and SOS by QUS Centre of the bone T ≤  − 2.5 464 141 323 41.02 38
59 Shaanthana Subramaniam [68] 2019 Asia Malaysia BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, total hip T ≤  − 2.5 367 182 185 ≥ 40 56
60 Peizhi Wang [69] 2019 Asia Singapore Self-assessment tool Self-assessment tool High-Risk Index (female) <  − 4, High-Risk Index (male) <  − 6 2345 1052 1293 60–105 1218
61 Qiang Zeng [70] 2019 Asia China BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, Femoral neck, Total femur T ≤  − 2.5 41,347 40,944 34,377 ≥ 50 7211
62 Kyeong Jin Kim [71] 2020 Asia Korea BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femur neck, total hip T ≤  − 2.5 208 0 488 ≥ 50 52
63 Mamatov Sagynali Murzaevich [72] 2020 Asia Kyrgyz BMD by ultrasound bone densitometer   T ≤  − 2.5 1200 509 691 18–79 179
64 Qian Zhang [8] 2020 Asia Shanghai, China BMD by DXA Proximal femur, lumbar vertebrae T ≤  − 2.5 565 231 334 70–95 223
65 Florent Richy [73] 2004 Europe Belgium BMD by DXA Total femur, femoral neck, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 311 311 0 30–91 63
66 Eric Lespessailles [74] 2009 Europe France BMD by DXA Hip, spine, wrist by face-to-face interviews T ≤  − 2.5 2613 0 2613 ≥ 45 254
67 Henrik G Ahlborg [75] 2010 Europe Malmö, Sweden BMD by single-photon Distal radius, forearm T ≤  − 2.5 459 0 459 ≥ 50 69
68 Patrizia D’Amelio [76] 2013 Europe Italy BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 995 0 995 45–92 335
69 E. J. Marjanovic [77] 2013 Europe UK BMD by DXA Proximal femur, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 380 0 380 45–65 98
70 Marıa-Jesus Gómez-de-Tejada Romero [78] 2013 Europe Spain BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 1229 0 1229 ≥ 50 383
71 Loredana Cavalli [79] 2016 Europe Italy BMD by QUS Heel T ≤  − 2.5 7305 1191 6114 17–97 1212
72 Marie-Therese Puth [80] 2018 Europe Germany telephone survey Self-reported   10,660 4961 5699 ≥ 50 911
73 B. R. Nielsen [81] 2020 Europe Denmark BMD by DXA Spine and hip T ≤  − 2.5 529 232 297 ≥ 65 101
74 Alexandre Faisal-Cury [6] 2007 America Sao Paulo BMD Femur, hip T ≤  − 2.5 999 0 999 50–96 320
75 Julie Robitaille [82] 2008 America U.S. By a physician in the household Household interview By a physician 8073 0 8073 ≥ 20 442
76 H. Cheng [14] 2009 America AMERICA BMD by DXA Medicare data   911,327 359,733 551,594 ≥ 65 270,907
77 Arthur Swislocki [83] 2010 America Nursing Home, United States BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 106 106 0 ≥ 50 33
78 John Londono [84] 2013 America Colombia BMD by DXA Lumbar vertebrae, femur neck T ≤  − 2.5 795 0 795 35–53 38
79 Robert Ferrari [85] 2015 America Canada BMD by DXA Hip, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 557 557 0 65–75 6
80 Carlos Mautalen [86] 2016 America Buenos Aires, Argentina BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 5448 0 5448 ≥ 50 1021
81 Sabrina E. Noel [87] 2018 America USA BMD by DXA Femoral neck, lumbar spine T ≤  − 2.5 953 273 680 47–79 100
82 Ricardo M. Lima [88] 2019 America Brezil BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, femoral neck T ≤  − 2.5 234 0 234 68.3 37
83 T. O. Alonge [89] 2017 Africa Nigeria BMD by DXA Right wrist T ≤  − 2.5 2401 964 1437 ≥ 60 1366
84 P. O. Ezeonu [90] 2017 Africa South-East Nigeria BMD Right calcaneal bone T ≤  − 2.5 327 0 327 18–44 119
85 Fred Chuma Sitati [91] 2020 Africa Kenya, African BMD by DXA Lumbar spine, hip T ≤  − 2.5 254 0 254 50–95 67
86 E. P. Boschitsch [92] 2017 Australia Australia BMD by DXA Hip, the distal forearm, vertebrae T ≤  − 2.5 99,399 0 99,399 ≥ 40 13,444