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Table 2 Univariate analyses of risk factors associated with decreased ROM after surgery of tibial plateau fracture

From: Incidence and risk factors for decreased range of motion of the knee joint after surgery for closed tibial plateau fracture in adults

Variables Number (%) of limited ROM
(n = 57)
Number (%) of without limited ROM
(n = 163)
P
Age (years)    0.599
18–40 25 (43.9) 65 (39.9)  
41–60 32 (56.1) 98 (60.1)  
Diabetes mellitus 5 (8.8) 17 (10.4) 0.720
Hypertension 11 (19.3) 27 (16.6) 0.638
Cerebrovascular disease 0 (0.0) 3 (1.8) 0.302
Chronic heart disease 3 (5.3) 7 (4.3) 0.762
History of any surgery 7 (12.3) 17 (10.4) 0.700
Allergy to any medications 1 (1.8) 11 (6.7) 0.153
Living area    0.555
Rural 33 (57.9) 87 (53.4)  
Urban 24 (42.1) 76 (46.6)  
Current smoking 7 (12.3) 36 (22.1) 0.108
Alcohol consumption 4 (7.0) 27 (16.6) 0.075
Preoperative duration (days)    0.030*
1–7 32 (56.1) 117 (71.8)  
> 7 25 (43.9) 46 (28.2)  
Deep vein thrombosis 14 (24.6) 21 (12.9) 0.038*
Intermuscular vein thrombosis 1 (1.8) 2 (1.2) 0.768
BMI (kg/m2)    0.331
18.5–23.9 19 (33.3) 62 (38.0)  
< 18.5 1 (1.8) 0 (0.0)  
24–27.9 24 (42.1) 70 (42.9)  
≥ 28.0 13 (22.8) 31 (19.0)  
Anesthesia (general) 35 (61.4) 97 (59.5) 0.802
Orthopedic polytrauma 37 (64.9) 55 (33.7) 0.000*
Mechanism (high-energy) 40 (70.2) 96 (58.9) 0.131
Fracture type (Schartzker)    0.004*
I–IV 40 (70.2) 142 (87.1)  
V–VI 17 (29.8) 21 (12.9)  
Closed or open reduction procedures    0.027*
ORIF 39 (68.4) 84 (51.5)  
CRMIIF 18 (31.6) 79 (48.5)  
Bone grafting (yes) 16 (28.1) 44 (27.0) 0.875
Bone graft type    0.943
Autograft 11 (19.3) 32 (19.6)  
Allograft 5 (8.8) 12 (7.4)  
Operative duration (min)    0.726
1–120 24 (42.1) 73 (44.8)  
> 120 33 (57.9) 90 (55.2)  
Intraoperative blood loss (ml)    0.770
1–400 51 (89.5) 148 (90.8)  
> 400 6 (10.5) 15 (9.2)  
ASA class    0.696
 I 10 (17.5) 23 (14.1)  
 II 35 (61.4) 110 (67.5)  
 III or above 12 (21.1) 30 (18.4)  
Intraoperative blood transfusion 2 (3.5) 5 (3.1) 0.870
  1. Abbreviations: ORIF open reduction and internal fixation, CRMIIF closed reduction and minimally invasive internal fixation, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, BMI body mass index,
  2. *Significant variables