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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses of positive HBL in this study

From: Development and validation of a nomogram for prediction of the risk of positive hidden blood loss in the perioperative period of single-level thoracolumbar burst fracture

  Univariate analysis   Multivariate analysis  
OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Age (year) 4.055 (2.417–6.805) <0.001 3.056 (1.956–4.965) 0.012
Sex (%) 1.099 (0.663–1.822) 0.715 NA  
BMI (%) 1.668 (1.021–2.726) 0.041 NA  
Hypertension (%) 2.242 (1.351–3.721) 0.002 NA  
Diabetes (%) 2.584 (1.548–4.316) <0.001 NA  
History of smoking (%) 2.735 (1.651–4.531) <0.001 NA  
History of alcohol (%) 0.848 (0.520–1.383) 0.509 NA  
Chronic steroid use (%) 1.391 (0.800–2.419) 0.242 NA  
COPD (%) 2.589 (1.273–5.265) 0.009 NA  
History of blood transfusion (%) 1.169 (0.611–2.237) 0.637 NA  
Preoperative VAS 1.444 (0.832–2.506) 0.192 NA  
Preoperative JOA score 1.096 (0.635–1.893) 0.741 NA  
Preoperative SF 36 0.665 (0.395–1.119) 0.125 NA  
Duration from admission to surgery (day) 2.344 (1.418–3.874) <0.001 1.985 (1.085–2.956) 0.032
Length of surgical incision (cm) 7.352 (4.235–12.761) <0.001 NA  
Duration of operation (h) 8.906 (5.078–15.621) <0.001 4.571 (1.787–11.692) 0.002
P1% 16.369 (8.826–30.356) <0.001 3.400 (1.302–8.878) 0.012
P2% 0.667 (0.402–1.109) 0.119 NA  
Level 0.817 (0.498–1.450) 0.952 NA  
Levels of fusion (%) 1.639 (1.114–2.412) 0.012 NA  
Intraoperative infusion of crystalloids (ml) 0.569 (0.341–0.949) 0.031 NA  
Intraoperative infusion of colloids (ml) 0.765 (0.469–1.248) 0.283 NA  
Autologous blood transfusion (%) 1.019 (0.601–1.730) 0.943 NA  
Allogeneic blood transfusion (%) 1.771 (1.012–3.097) 0.045 NA  
Preoperative total cholesterol (mmol/L) 9.384 (5.287–16.655) <0.001 7.161 (2.523–20.322) <0.001
Preoperative triglyceride (mmol/L) 5.196 (3.059–8.828) <0.001 NA  
Preoperative Hct (%) 1.576 (0.965–2.576) 0.069 NA  
Preoperative Hb (g/L) 0.713 (0.436–1.167) 0.178 NA  
Preoperative ALB (g/L) 4.478 (2.519–7.959) <0.001 NA  
Preoperative PT (s) 13.872 (7.632–25.214) 0.089 NA  
Preoperative APTT (s) 0.700 (0.424–1.156) 0.164 NA  
Preoperative Fib (mg/dL) 0.525 (0.317–0.868) 0.012 0.378 (0.179–0.598) 0.029
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, JOA Japanese Orthopaedic Association, VAS visual analogue score, SF-36 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, P1% percentages of vertebral height restoration, P2% percentages of vertebral height loss, Hct hematocrit, Hb hemoglobin, ALB albumin, PT prothrombin time, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, NA not available