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Table 1 Comparison of variables between the positive HBL group and negative HBL group

From: Development and validation of a nomogram for prediction of the risk of positive hidden blood loss in the perioperative period of single-level thoracolumbar burst fracture

  Total Negative HBL group Positive HBL group P value
Number of patients 150 93 57  
Age (year) 38.1 (10.3) 34.3 (9.5) 49.2 (8.1) <0.001
Sex (%)
 Female 99 (66.0) 60 (64.5) 39 (68.4) 0.711
 Male 51 (34.0) 33 (35.5) 18 (31.6)  
BMI (%)
 < 25 77 (51.3) 53 (57.0) 24 (42.1) 0.065
25 73 (48.7) 40 (43.0) 33 (57.9)  
Hypertension (%)
 No 56(37.3) 45 (48.4) 11 (19.3) <0.001
 Yes 94 (62.7) 50 (51.6) 46 (80.7)  
Diabetes (%)
 No 63 (42.0) 53 (57.0) 10 (17.5) 0.017
 Yes 87 (58.0) 40 (43.0) 47 (82.5)  
History of smoking (%)
 No 77 (51.3) 61 (65.6) 16 (28.1) <0.001
 Yes 73 (48.7) 32 (34.4) 41 (71.9)  
History of alcohol (%)
 No 68 (42.5) 40 (38.8) 28 (49.1) 0.165
 Yes 92 (57.5) 63 (61.2) 29 (50.9)  
Chronic steroid use (%)
 No 133 (88.7) 80 (86.0) 53 (93.0) 0.321
 Yes 17 (11.3) 13 (14.0) 4 (7.00)  
COPD (%)
 No 145 (96.7) 90 (96.8) 55 (96.5) 0.965
 Yes 5 (3.30) 3 (3.20) 2 (3.50)  
History of blood transfusion (%)
 No 149 (99.3) 92 (98.9) 57 (100.0) 0.421
 Yes 1 (0.7) 1 (1.10) 0 (0.00)  
Preoperative VAS 5.9 [4.9, 7.1] 6.8 [4.8, 7.0] 5.8 [4.9, 7.0] 0.265
Preoperative JOA 12.7 [10.0, 16.5] 13.1 [10.0, 16.0] 13.2 [10.8, 15.5] 0.228
Preoperative SF-36 70.6 (5.4) 71.3 (6.0) 69.9 (6.8) 0.65
Duration from admission to surgery (day) 0.6 (0.5) 0.48 (0.5) 0.72 (0.3) 0.021
Length of surgical incision (cm) 14.0 (1.6) 12.9 (1.1) 15.8 (0.9) <0.001
Duration of operation (min) 164.6 (18.4) 157.0 (13.8) 178.2(15.5) <0.001
P1% 38.3 [36.7, 44.1] 37.2 [36.0, 36.4] 46.0 [41.4, 48.1] <0.001
P2% 29.7 [27.0, 31.8] 30.9 [26.9, 34.7] 28.5 [26.9, 30.9] 0.011
Level
 T11 64 (43.0) 43 (46.1) 22 (37.9) 0.637
 T12 63 (41.9) 38 (40.8) 25 (43.6)  
 L1 23 (15.2) 12 (13.1) 11 (18.5)  
Levels of fusion (%)
 T9-L1 73 (48.7) 50 (53.8) 23 (40.4) 0.4408
 T10-L2 61 (40.7) 36 (38.7) 25 (43.9)  
 T11-L3 16 (10.7) 7 (7.50) 9 (15.8)  
Intraoperative infusion of crystalloids (ml) 1569.0 [1317.0, 1862.3] 1561.1 [1359.5, 1856.2] 1538.1 [1239.2, 1889.9] 0.706
Intraoperative infusion of colloids (ml) 812.4 [627.0, 995.5] 809.6 [618.0, 1011.3] 815.1 [670.2, 939.5] 0.876
Autologous blood transfusion (%)
 No 120 (80.0) 77 (82.8) 43 (75.4) 0.470
 Yes 30 (20.0) 16 (17.2) 14 (24.6)  
Allogeneic blood transfusion (%)
 No 115 (76.7) 75 (80.6) 40 (70.2) 0.775
 Yes 35 (23.3) 18 (19.4) 17 (29.8)  
Preoperative total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.7 [3.3, 6.4] 3.7 [3.2, 5.0] 6.8 [5.2, 7.0] <0.001
Preoperative triglyceride (mmol/L) 2.1 [1.4, 3.5] 1.7 [1.0, 2.3] 3.8 [3.2, 4.9] <0.001
Preoperative Hct (%) 40.9 (3.5) 40.3 (3.9) 42.6(4.4) 0.405
Preoperative Hb (g/L) 122.8 (13.4) 124.2 (15.2) 119.8 (10.2) 0.017
Preoperative ALB (g/L) 39.7 (4.8) 39.2 (4.0) 40.6 (4.3) 0.040
Preoperative PT (s) 10.2 (0.6) 10.1 (0.4) 10.9 (0.5) <0.001
Preoperative APTT (s) 33.4 (2.7) 35.7 (2.8) 32.9 (2.8) <0.001
Preoperative Fib (mg/dL) 4.7 (0.9) 4.9 (1.0) 4.6 (0.7) 0.038
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, JOA Japanese Orthopaedic Association, VAS visual analogue score, SF-36 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, P1% percentages of vertebral height restoration, P2% percentages of vertebral height loss, Hct hematocrit, Hb hemoglobin, ALB albumin, PT prothrombin time, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time