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Table 4 Chronic QTR

From: Complex ruptures of the quadriceps tendon: a systematic review of surgical procedures and outcomes

Nr. of reference No. of patients Gender Mean age Mechanism of rupture Time before surgery Type of lesion/rerupture Associated injury/comorbidities Type of surgery
[25] Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in a seasoned marathon runner with patellar spurs. (2011) Assiotis et al. 1 M 63 Tripped on a step and fell down, landing on both his knees 42 days Bilateral QT ruptures None Three separate Krakow-type sutures +three separate drilled tunnels in the patella and secured over the distal pole
[40] Simultaneous chronic rupture of quadriceps tendon and contra-lateral patellar tendon in a patient affected by tertiary hyperparatiroidism. (2008) Grecomoro et al. 1 M 48 Subsiding of the left knee during walking and a secondary fall 40 days Full thickness of the distal insertion of QT Chronic renal failure, tertiary hyperparathyroidism Codivilla’s Y/V technique
[41] Neglected rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with chronic renal failure (case report and review of the literature). (2014) Hassani et al. 1 M 32 Common fall 60 days Full thickness of the QT at the osteo-tendinous junction with retraction of 3 cm + calcifications Chronic renal failure, with hemodialysis dependence for 5 years Codivilla’s Y/V technique
[22] Bilateral extensor mechanism allograft reconstruction for chronic spontaneous rupture: a case report and review of the literature. (2019) Lamberti et al. 1 F 51 Acute failureof the left knee while getting up from a chair 480 days Full-thickness lesion on the left QT End-stage renal failure + full-thickness lesion on the right patellar tendon A full extensor mechanism allograft
[36] Surgical treatment of neglected traumatic quadriceps tendon rupture with knee ankylosis. (2016) Lee et al. 1 M 15 Motorcycle traffic accident 270 days Chronic QT rupture + a patellar superior pole avulsion fracture of the left knee + nonunion of the left proximal tibia fracture Open fracture of the left femur shaft + an intra-articular fracture of the proximal tibia QT reconstruction using tibialis anterior allograft and additional screw fixation
[17] Reconstruction of a chronic quadriceps tendon tear in a body builder. (2006) Leopardi et al. 1 M 28 Car accident 210 days Full-thickness tear of the quadriceps tendon proximal to the superior pole of the patella Anabolic steroid use QT reconstruction using gracilis and semitendinosus autograft
[42] Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon (2015) Karahasanoglu et al. 1 M 40 Fall from a standing height 730 days Chronic full-thickness and QT retraction Ipsilateral patellar tendon rupture Peroneus longus autograft
[43] Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture and coexistent femoral neck fracture in a patient with chronic renal failure. (2007) Kazimoglu et al. 1 F 37 Two consecutive falls 60 days bilateral QT ruptures Chronic renal failure, with hemodialysis dependence for 2 years Tycron transpatellar suture anchors
[35] Knee osteoarthritis with chronic quadriceps tendon rupture treated with total knee arthroplasty and extensor mechanism allograft reconstruction: a case report. (2018) Piatek et al. 1 M 51 Traumatic fall 90 days Chronic full-thickness and QT retraction Tricompartmental knee osteoarthritis TKA + complete knee extensor mechanism allograft
[45] Delayed reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon. (2008) Pocock et al. 1 F 80 Common fall 2920 days Chronic full-thickness and QT retraction Hypertension Four FiberWire1 (Arthrex Ltd, Sheffield, England) sutures
[30] Chronic rupture of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. (2005) Poonnoose et al. 1 M 50 Common fall 4380 days Chronic full-thickness and QT retraction Comminuted patellar fracture treated with patellectomy Controlateral ileo-tibial band autograft
[46] Chronic quadriceps rupture: treatment with lengthening and early mobilization without cerclage augmentation and a report of three cases. (2008) Rizio et al. 3 1 M
2 F
46,75 One of them down a flight of stairs; One of them injured his knee while jumping in church during prayers; One of them fell while stepping off a curb. 240 days Chronic full thickness Hypertension, hypercolesterolaemia, obesity + obesity + hyp and chronic back pain V-Y lengthening and direct repair through drill holes in the patella without augmentation
[47] A simultaneous bilateral quadriceps and patellar tendons rupture in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing long-term hemodialysis: a case report. (2020) Tao et al. 2 M 33,5 1 fall down the stairs 1 sudden twist Bilateral QT ruptures Chronic renal failure, with hemodialysis dependence for 9 and 11 years Krackow sutures