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Table 2 Clinical outcomes

From: External fixation versus elastic stable intramedullary nailing in the treatment of open tibial shaft fractures in children

Complication EF (N = 55) ESIN (N = 37) P value
Malunion 0 0 > 0.99
Non-union 0 0 > 0.99
Deep infection 0 0 > 0.99
Refracture 3 (5%) 0 0.100
Implant prominence 0 6 (16%)  
Angulation (degree) Coronal 3.4±1.4 1.9±1.2 0.02*
Sagittal 5.7±3.1 4.6±3.1 0.04*
Wound infection 3 (5.5%) 2 (5.4%) 0.69
Pin tract infection 20 (36%)   
Hardware removal (weeks) 12.7±3.6 24.9±4.8 < 0.01*
Radiological union (weeks) 9.0±2.2 7.0±0.9 0.03*
LLD (mm) at last follow-up 12.1±4.4 7.3±4.3 < 0.01*
  1. Major complications: loss of reduction, non-union, refracture
  2. Minor complications: implant prominence, mild angulation, superficial infection
  3. LLD limb length discrepancy
  4. *< 0.05