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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies, participants, podometric measurements, and foot type classification

From: Footprint measurement methods for the assessment and classification of foot types in subjects with Down syndrome: a systematic review

Author, date Sample size (N) Females/males Age [mean (SD) in years] Participants Study aim Footprint instrument(s) Measurements Static/dynamic protocol Footprint type classification
Concolino etal., 2006 [7] C, 100
DS, 50
C, 68/32
DS, 31/19
C, 4.8 (range 3–8)
DS, 5.6 (range 4–8)
C: children without DS
DS: children with DS
To verify the importance of podiatric evaluation in patients with DS for early diagnosis and of minor orthopedic problems Podoscope (polarized light)
Electronic baropodometer (4800 active sensors over 120 cm)
N.S. Both Bony deformity of the forefoot, flat foot, isolated calcaneal valgus, knee valgus, and pronated flat foot
Galli etal., 2014 [10] C, 15
DS, 29
N.S. C, 9.2 (5.7)
DS, 9.8 (2.3)
C: children without DS
DS: children with DS
To quantitatively assess the relationship between the flat foot and the gait alterations in DS children Pressure-sensitive mat (2016 sensing elements in a 42 × 48 matrix)
Matlab® software
Arch Index Static (barefoot, standing on the mat for 5s) Flat foot
Galli etal., 2014 [11] C, 15
DS, 55
N.S. C, 9.2 (5.7)
DS, 9.6 (1.7)
C: children without DS
DS: children with DS
To determine if DS children with the flat foot are characterized by an accentuated external foot rotation during walking Pressure-sensitive mat (2016 sensing elements in a 42 × 48 matrix)
Matlab® software
Arch Index Static (barefoot, standing on the mat for 5s) Flat foot
Galli etal., 2016 [12] HC, 19
HT, 13
HA, 14
DS, 13
N.S. HC, 10.10 (1.93)
HT, 13.96 (1.14)
HA, 37.30 (7.42)
DSC, 10.42 (2.46)
DST, 17.20 (1.62)
DSA: 27.90 (3.69)
HC, HT, HA: subjects without DS
DS: subjects with DS (time range of 17 yr)
To quantify foot abnormalities in individuals with DS while standing, in terms of foot-ground interaction parameters from childhood to adulthood Pressure-sensitive mat (2016 sensing elements in a 42 × 48 matrix)
Matlab® software
Arch Index Static (barefoot, standing on the mat for 5s) Flat foot, contact pressure
Gutiérrez-Vilahú etal., 2015 [13] C, 21
DS, 22
C, 10/11
DS, 11/11
C: M 20.45 (2.16); F 20 (1.70)
DS: M 23.82 (3.12); F 24.82 (6.81)
C: subjects without DS
DS: subjects with DS
To analyze, measure, and classify footprints on the basis of gold standard podiatric indices in young people with DS Optical podoscope (chromed, direct 220 V light, 60 × 45 × 33)
Digital camera
Hernández-Corvo Index
Chippaux-Smirak Index
Staheli Index
Clarke Angle
Static (barefoot, standing, and lower limbs in parallel) Flat foot, pronated foot, cavus foot
Gutiérrez-Vilahú etal., 2016 [6] 22 11/11 M 23.82 (3.12); F 24.82 (6.81) Special school students with DS To assess the reliability and validity of a footprint assessment technique in the population with DS Optical podoscope (chromed, direct 220 V light, 60 × 45 × 33)
Digital camera
Photoshop CS5 software
Hernández-Corvo Index
Chippaux-Smirak Index
Staheli Index
Clarke Angle
Static (barefoot, standing, and lower limbs in parallel) N.S.
Hassan etal., 2020 [14] 30 18/12 10.6 (3.9) Children and adolescents with DS To determine the reproducibility of measuring foot dimensions of children and adolescents with DS using 3D scanning FotoScan 3D scanner
3D-Tool© software version 13
Arch Index Static (standing in a relaxed, full weight-bearing position) Forefoot shape
Lim etal., 2015 [15] 50 28/14 10.6 (3.9) Children and adolescents with DS To determine if there is an association between flat feet, hallux valgus, and footwear-fitting problems with foot-specific disability in children and adolescents with DS PressureStatTM carbon paper
Image analysis software Scion®
Arch Index Static (standing relaxed) Flat feet, hallux valgus, toe deformities
Mansour etal., 2017 [5] C, 53
DS, 55
C, 26/27
DS, 19/36
C, 13.5 (11.2)
DS, 14.6 (7.4)
C: asymptomatic subjects
DS: patients with DS
To investigate the prevalence of foot deformities in patients with DS Podoscope N.S. Static (standing) Hallux valgus, syndactyly, grade II and grade III pes planus, joint laxity
Pau etal., 2012 [16] C, 99
DS, 99
N.S. C, 9.5 (1.6)
DS, 9.7 (1.7)
C: children without DS
DS: children with DS
To quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters to assess foot evolution with age in young individuals with DS Pressure-sensitive mat (2016 sensing elements in a 42 × 48 matrix)
Matlab® software
Arch Index Static (barefoot, standing on the mat for 5s) Flat foot, contact pressure
Shields etal., 2017 [17] 50 22/28 10.6 (3.9) Children and adolescents with DS To investigate the relationship between foot structure, footwear fit, and levels of physical activity in children and adolescents with DS PressureStatTM carbon paper
Image analysis software Scion®
Arch Index Static (standing relaxed) Flat foot, footwear
  1. Abbreviations: C, control; DS, Down syndrome; DSC, Down syndrome children; DST, Down syndrome teenagers; DSA, Down syndrome adults; F, females; HC, healthy controls; HT, healthy teenagers; HA, healthy adults; N, number of participants; N.S., not stated; M, males; SD, standard deviation