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Table 1 Characteristics of the selected articles

From: Comparison of minimally invasive percutaneous fixation and open reduction internal fixation for patella fractures: a meta-analysis

Study Article type No. of patients
(Male/Female)
Age
(years)
Type of fracture according to AO/OTA Intervention Outcomes Functional evaluating scale Follow-up (months) Rehabilitation
Vicenti et al. (2020) [10] Prospective study S: 31 (12/19)
C: 30 (13/17)
S: 69.62 ± 9.88
C: 70.77 ± 8.22
34-C1 S: MIOT with stainless steel wire
C: OS with tension band wiring
abcde Lysholm 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 Postoperation day 1: Passive knee motion by using specific electric devices, progressive active mobilization, and static isometric quadriceps exercises + partial weight-bearing with crutches and brace (removed when satisfactory quadricep control was achieved)
Shao et al. (2019) [28] RCT S: 21 (14/7)
C: 17 (11/6)
S: 42.2 ± 12.4
C: 40.3 ± 10.5
NM S: MIS with cable pin system
C: OS with cable pin system
abcde Bostman 1, 2, and 12 Postoperation day 1: Passive exercise by using a continuous passive motion machine for three 1-h sessions, starting from 0o to 60o, increasing 15o per day until 90o was achieved ± active flexion exercises in prone position
Postoperation day 3: Partial weight-bearing
3 weeks postoperation: Active extension
Radiographically healed: Full weight-bearing
Lin et al. (2015) [27] RCT S: 26 (15/11)
C: 26 (13/13)
S: 50.8 ± 16.3
C: 52.5 ± 17.4
45-C1.1
45-C1.2
45-C1.3
S: CRCF
C: ORTF
abcefg Lysholm 3, 6, and 12 Quadricep–femur contraction excises soon after the operation + passive ROM under tolerable wound pain
3 weeks postoperation: Active ROM
8 weeks postoperation: Full weight-bearing
Mao et al. (2013) [26] RCT S: 20 (14/6)
C: 20 (11/9)
S: 40.2 ± 10.0
C: 43.5 ± 11.4
NM S: MICP
C: OSKW
abcdef Bostman 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 Postoperation day 1: Passive exercise by using a continuous passive motion machine ± active flexion exercises in prone position
Postoperation day 3: Partial weight-bearing
3 weeks postoperation: Active extension
Radiographically healed: Full weight-bearing
Chiang et al., (2011) [20, 25] Retrospective review S: 20 (9/11)
C: 40 (15/25)
S: 56.6 ± 14.7
C: 60.2 ± 15.4
45-C1.1
45-C1.3
S: POMC
C: OMATB
bcdefg Lysholm 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 Postoperation day 1: Partial weight-bearing ± passive ROM if pain can be tolerated
3 weeks postoperation: Active ROM
8 weeks postoperation: Full weight-bearing
Luna-Pizarro et al. (2006) [24] RCT S: 27 (17/10)
C: 26 (13/13)
S: 51 ± 14.8
C: 44 ± 18.2
45-C1.1
45C1.3
S: PPOS
C: OS with modified tension band
abcdef KSCRS 1, 2, 12, and 24 12 h postoperation: Isometric and isotonic contractions of quadriceps for 30 min four times a day and continued after discharge
  1. AO/OTA, arbeitsgemeinschaft fur osteosynthesefragen/ orthopaedic trauma association; a, pain score; Bostman, Bostman clinical grading scale; b, knee range of motion (flexion/extension); C, control group; CRCF, closed reduction and percutaneous cannulated screw fixation; c, joint functionality; d, operation time; e, incidence of complications; f reoperation rate; g union time; KSCRS Knee Society Clinical Rating Scale, Lysholm Lysholm Knee scoring system, MICP minimally invasive with cable pin technique, MIOT minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique, MIS minimally invasive surgery, NM not mentioned, OMATB open modified anterior tension band technique, ORTF open reduction and tension band wiring fixation, OS open surgery, OSKW conventional open surgery using the K wire tension band method, POMC percutaneous osteosynthesis with modified Carpenter’s technique, PPOS percutaneous patellar osteosynthesis system, RCT randomized controlled trial, ROM range of motion; S, studied group